Sam Houston State University
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel on Saturday October 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1301 Psych at Sam Houston State University taught by Dr Allen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 10/08/16
Memory Saturday, October 1, 1:13 PM What is Memory ? Learning that has persisted over time- information that has been stored and in many cases can be recalled Models of Memory Information Processing Model Focuses on the way information is processed through different stages of memory Levels of Processing Model Focuses on the depth of processing associated with specific information deeper processing associated with longer retention Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) Model Focuses simultaneous processing of information across multiple neural networks Iconic- visual Sensory Memory Echoic- auditory Conscious active processing of incoming auditory and visual spatial information and of Working Memory/ Short information retrieved from long term memory Memory • Working memory involves all the ways that we take short term information and stash it in our long term memory • Chunking and Maintenance rehearsal can be used to increase can be used to increase capacity and duration, respectively Auditory Central Visual Spatial Rehearsal Executive Information Long Term Memory Explicit Memory Memory of facts and experiments that one can consciously know and "declare" Retention Independent of conscious recollection Implicit Memory Associated with physical changes in the brain; involved in consolidation of information from short Long Term Memory term memory - Elaborative rehearsal can lead to better long term storage Different types, based on old information stored; different brain areas associated with each Psych Page 1 - Elaborative rehearsal can lead to better long term storage Different types, based on old information stored; different brain areas associated with each Nondeclarative Implicit memory skills habits and learned responses Declarative explicit memory facts and info Semantic (Procedural Memory) - refers to how we remember to do things like riding a bike or reading Episodic - Tied to specific events or episodes of your life LTM is organized in terms of related meaning and concepts Semantic Network Model How information is stored in connected fashion Parallel Distributed Processing Model Can be used to explain speed at which different points can be accessed Non- Conscious encoding of incidental information such as space and time and frequency and of well Automatic Encoding learned information Like learning to pull your hand away from a burning fire Recall A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier Example: Fill in the blank test Retrieval Failure- like when something is on the tip of your tongue Serial Position Effect- Memory improved for items at the beginning and end of a list A measure in which the person need only identify items previously learned Recognition Example: Multiple Choice test Retrieval Cues More cues stored with a piece of information the easier the retrieval Encoding Specificity Context-dependent learning Improved memory for information if physical surroundings are similar to those when the memory was first formed State-Dependent-Learning Improved memory for information if psychological state is similar to that when the memory was first formed Process of Memory In the 1960's psychologist Richard Atkinson and Richard Atkinson figured the memory formation to break it down into 3 stages External Sensory memory -encoding Events Storage And sensory input Maintenance rehearsal Psych Page 2 Storage And sensory input Maintenance rehearsal Working/Short term Memory - Encoding Retrieving = Long Term Memory ConstructiveProcessing of Memories are rarely completely accurate and become less accuarate and become less accurate over Memories time Loftus and others have suggested that memory retrieval is a constructive process; memories are "built" at time of retrieval Misinformation effect Memory Retrieval Problems Incorporation of inaccurate information into actual memory Reliability of memory retrieval Influenced by plausibility of event and individual receiving collaborative feedback that makes it easier to believe Forgetting Distributed Practice Produces far better retrieval than massed practice (cramming) Encoding Failure Nonattended information is not encoded into memory Memory trace decay Over time, if not used, neuronal connections can weaken or decay Interference Other information interferes with accurate retrieval Proactive- previously learned Retroactive- newly acquired Neuroscience of Memory Different areas are associated with different types of memory Procedural memories- Cerebellum Short term memories- prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes Semantic and Episodic Long term memories- Frontal and temporal lobes (different locations than Short term memories) Several physical Changes in the brain are associated with memory formation (consolidation) Hippocampus- plays a vital role in the formation of new declarative long term memories Psych Page 3 Hippocampus- plays a vital role in the formation of new declarative long term memories Amnesia Organic amnesia caused by problems in brain function associated with brain trauma, disease, or aging Retrograde Anterograde Infantile Amnesia Memories before the age of 3 are likely implicit and not explicit memory Psych Page 4
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