EBIO 1210: Comparisons
EBIO 1210: Comparisons EBIO 1210
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Campbell on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1210 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by William Adams, Scott Taylor, Derek Sweeney in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see General Biology 1 in Biology at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
EBIO 1210: Comparisons Notes Photosynthesis Respiration Carbon source CO2 Food Molecules w/ C-H Bonds Carbon Product Sugar (C-H bonds) CO2 H (electron + H+) Water C-H Bonds Ultimate energy source Sunlight C-H Bonds Final energy-rich product Sugar (C-H bonds) ATP Photosynthesis: CO2 + H2O + Suns energy —> C6H12O6 + O2 Respiration: C6H12O6 + O2 —> CO2 + H2O + ATP energy for cellular work ● Glycolysis outside of mitochondria ○ from glucose (6C) to 2x pyruvate (3C) ● Only when oxygen is present can glucose be burned completely in the mitochondria for highest ATP energy yield. ● Cytosol Compare and ○ Only 2 ATP contrast anaerobic ○ no O2 present and aerobic ■ Anaerobic respiration = fermentation respiration with ● Glycolysis respect to location, ○ 2 ATP speed, energy yield, ○ O2 present and the involvement ■ Aerobic = oxidative respiration of oxygen. Glycolysis and Fermentation WITHOUT oxygen ● Lactic acid Fermentation ○ Muscle cells under anaerobic conditions ○ some yeasts (fungi) & some bacteria ● Alcohol fermentation ○ Some yeasts (brewers yeast and bakers yeast) and some bacteria ● Microbes on host surfaces (like Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) protect host from infections ○ Lactobacillus acidophilus in vagina produces lactic acid and prevents colonization of harmful yeast and bacteria Fermentation vs. aerobic respiration ● Glycogen (fermentation) ○ fast-twitch glycolytic fibers (for sprint) use glycolysis ■ quick, but does not provide much ATP energy Relate fast-twitch and ● Fats (aerobic respiration) slow-twitch muscle ○ slow twitch oxidative fibers (with many mitochondria for extended fibers to aerobic and exercise) use oxidative respiration aerobic respiration ■ slower, but provides more ATP energy ○ It’s particularly the slow-twitch oxidative fibers that have myoglobin for oxygen storage ■ diving mammals like whales and seals have black-looking meat with high myoglobin concentrations ● More important than knowing the steps of metabolic pathways is to appreciate that metabolism is highly dynamic and highly responsive ll living organisms environments ● Plants do it too: activate only pathways that are needed in a given environment. ○ not all of an organisms genes are expressed and not all proteins are Identify the role of the made at all times. this saves energy. environment (and ○ Energy burned in growing parts of plant: diet) in the regulation ■ When plants grow rapidly, there is a high demand for sugars of energy storage by the rest of the plant. versus energy ○ Energy stored as starch in leaves utilization ■ when plants are not growing, there is a low demand for sugars. ● Microbes do it too: activate only whatever pathway is needed in a given environment. ○ When glucose is available in the environment, the pathway for glucose utilization is activated by gene expression of the necessary enzymes. ○ When lactose, not glucose, is available in the environment, the pathway for lactose utilization is activated by gene expression of the necessary enzymes.
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