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week5 psy1010

by: Farreh Sears

week5 psy1010 PSY 1010

Farreh Sears

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...=-| good luck
Intro Psychology
Andrew Tenbrink
Class Notes
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Popular in Intro Psychology

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Farreh Sears on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1010 at Wayne State University taught by Andrew Tenbrink in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Intro Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Wayne State University.


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Date Created: 10/09/16
Lecture 9-10 The brain works like a computer, you start with something simple and at each stage you build onto it until it’s more complex.  Building objects from features o Retinal ganglion cell receptive field (a circle) o Cortex receptive field (adds circles to make a line) o Higher cortical areas (put the lines together to form objects.  Parallel processing computers perform multiple computations at a time. (multi-tasking) o Break problems down into sub-tasks  Divide a big problem into three (more or less) smaller problems. o Compute sub-tasks at the same time (in parallel) o If you knock out certain parts of the brain you can remove people ability to perceive movement or color.  Dorsal stream- the where pathway o Movement and location o Agnosia- the inability to perceive movement  Ventral stream- the what pathway o Prosopagnosia- face blindness (cannot recognize the whole)  Can describe individual elements of a face, but is unable to put them together as a whole.  In vision the brain does parallel processing like a computer o It separates objects into three separate forms  Color  Motion  Form o Each form is processed at the same time, but happens in different locations of the brain. Perception- perception is an illusion  Binding color and motion o The “motion silencing illusion”  Overwhelming your brain with motion, color, and color change. When they’re all working together your brain won’t process the color change so long as you’re not paying attention to detail. o Feature integration theory: attention not required to detect different features, but is required to bind them.  What we perceive is a creation of the brain o The brain as a “reality engine” o The brain uses attention to control “choice” of features o The brain uses memory and surrounding context to make a best guess. Control of perception  Nature o Bottom-up process- stimulus from the outside, also automatic o Innate assumptions of how the world works or how it’s put together.  Hardwired, didn’t need to be taught  Nurture o Top-down- attention driven knowledge  What you choose to pay attention to. o Learning and memory  Experiences Constructing forms: grouping features  Bottom-up o Each object consists of a number of parts o The brain follows built in rules to determine which parts belong together 2 o Gestalt rules  Simplicity= an arrow instead of a triangle on a line  Closure= closing gaps in a group of lines  Continuity= a group of four lines can be seen as lines continuing.  Similarity= similar things go together  Proximity = what’s closer together  Common fate= things that move together, belong together.  Top-down organization o Context information guides perception  Circumstances, setting, surrounding information o Perceptual set- a state of mind that you view something  From prior knowledge or context  From our expectations: seeing what you expect to see.  Features to figures o Once features become organized, they become a figure and becomes distinct from ground. o Objects moving together belong together Depth perception  Basic problem- image on retina of the eye Is two dimensional o How do we construct 3-d images? o Monocular and binocular cues (creating 3 dimensions from two-dimensional retina)  Monocular cues- cues for depth perception that only require one eye to perceive.  Binocular cues- two eyes  Binocular disparity (a difference) 3 o Eyes see a slight difference in the world. The brain compares and puts together the difference o Disparity increases with increasing depth.  How 3-D media works  By presenting a slightly different image to each eye.  Perceptual constancy o We see objects as constant and unchanging even if our perspective changes.  Shape constancy  A door is identified as a door, but the shape can change with your perception and a door can go from being rectangular to a rhombus shape.  Size constancy  A hand’s size can change depending on how close it is, but it’s still recognized as a hand. o Constancy mechanisms: top-down and bottom-up  Knowledge of objects  We learn about the size and shapes of object, use this knowledge in perception  Use depth cues  Distance and position changes o Size-distance illusion  Depth cues create the illusion that men are approximately the same size.  Tower  No/or few depth cues to tell brain that the tower is well-behind the person o Illusions  Illusions are used to help understand brain processes 4  There is no clear answer for how they work  Developmental psychology o A life span approach: from the womb to tomb  Cognitive vs. social development  You’re continually changing along your life span.  Nature and Nurture o Phenotypes: one’s actual appearance and behavior  Result of genotype (nature) + experience (nurture) o Nature  Development of structures places limits on capabilities  Evidence for nature  Many capabilities and skills develop at the same time and in the same sequence o Irrespective of culture, location in the world.  Walking (locomotion) o All children go through same steps  Language o All children acquire in the same pattern o Nurture  Experience determines how structures develop  Evidence for nurture  Experience can alter timing of development o Children walk sooner in cultures that encourage walking (many African cultures) o Walking is delayed when babies are carried more (some Asian cultures, some American Indian cultures) 5  Experience required for full development of skills or capabilities o Which language we learn, & how well we learn it o Abnormal social experience results in a poorly functioning brain. o Infants naturally prefer faces; nature guiding nurture  Development of face recognition  Infant visual acuity depends on visual system development  Infants are manipulative masterminds that smile in order to keep you looking at them. That way they can figure out faces  Brain development o Your brain changes continually throughout your life  Number of neurons (decreases)  Connection between neurons o Developmental changes in the brain underlie our cognitive capacity and skills  Changes in the way we think  Changes in our ability to learn  Piaget o Creating schemas  Theory about how the world works o Assimilation  Fitting new information into existing schemas o Accommodation  Modifying schemas to fit new information o Jean Piaget  Father of developmental psychology  Observational method: he & his wife took detailed notes on the development of their three children. o Theory 6  Described four stages in cognitive development  Progress from concrete to abstract thought  Each child progresses through each stage at about the same age  Acquire/master new cognitive skills at each stage  When primary skill is mastered, childe “graduates” to next stage 7


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