HDFS 3400 Chapter 12
HDFS 3400 Chapter 12 3440
Popular in Human Sexuality
Popular in Human Development
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Bacevice on Thursday April 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 3440 at Ohio State University taught by Katye Miller in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Human Development at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 04/02/15
Human Sexuality Chapter 12 Sexual Behavior During Infancy and Childhood Infant Sexuality o The capacity for sexual response is present at birth 0 Pelvic thrusting rubbing genital are against an object are signs of sexual arousal in infants 0 Occurs both in boys and girls Childhood Sexuality o Normative Sexual Behavior in Children A Contemporary Samplequot research done in the US by interviewing mothers of children ages 2 to 12 o A child can learn to express her or his affectionate and sensual feelings through activities such as kissing or hugging o A number of researchers believe that children who were deprived of contact comfortquot during the first few months and years of life can have difficulty establishing intimate relationships later in their lives 0 High levels of adult violence are manifested in those cultures in which children are deprived of physical affection 0 Childhood Masturbation I Generally starts around 23 years old16 of mothers observed their 25 year old children masturbating with their hands I Comments about masturbation that pass from parent to child are often negative or nonexistent 0 Childhood Sex Play I Prepubertal children often engage in play that can be viewed as sexual usually between ages of 4 and 7 I Curiosity about what is forbidden probably plays an important role in encouraging early sexual exploration I Many children 57 begin to act in ways that mirror the predominant heterosexual marriage script in our society Ex playing house I Most 1112 year olds are interested in body changes particularly involving genitals I Youthful same sex experiences rarely play a determinant role in establishing a homosexual orientation The Physical Changes of Adolescence In Western societies it is between ages 12 and 20 Puberty latin pubescere to be covered with hair A period of rapid physical changes in early adolescence during which the reproductive organs mature Gonadotropins pituitary hormones that stimulate activity in the gonads testes and ovaries Usually between ages 814 Girls typically enter puberty at ages 10 or 11 boys a little later with an average age of 12 Secondary Sex Characteristics the physical characteristics other than genital development that indicate sexual maturity such as body hair breasts and deepened voice The only event of puberty that is clearly different in boys and girls is growth Growth spurts usually begin two years earlier in girls The median age for menarche in girls in the US and other developed countries is 1243 In boys the prostate gland and seminal vesicles increase noticeably in size during puberty Ejaculation is not possible until the prostate and seminal vesicles begin functioning Sexual Behavior During Adolescence The Sexual Double Standard 0 For males the focus of sexuality may be sexual conquest o For girls they may learn to appear sexy to attract males yet they often experience ambivalence about overt sexual behavior If a young woman refuses to have sex she may worry her boyfriend will lose interest and stop dating her But if she has sex she may fear a bad reputation of being quoteasyquot Masturbation o Masturbation rates are notably lower in females than males 20 vs 60 Noncoital Sexual Expression 0 Noncoital sex physical contact including kissing touching and manual or oralgenital stimulation but excluding coitus 0 Rate of oral sex in teenagers has significantly increased 0 For many noncoital sex is highly valued as a way to experience sexual intimacy while technically maintaining their virginity Ongoing Sexual Relationships 0 Studies in the US have shown that romantic relationships jumped from 30 in early adolescence to 70 in late adolescence 0 Nevertheless casual sexual hookups are also common among adolescence Adolescent Sexting o Sexting Sending sexually suggestive photos or text messages via the Internet cell phone or other electronic devices 0 Some states have sought to define sexting as a criminal offence and other states have allowed charging youthful practitioners of sexting with a misdemeanor which provides the option of diversion programs and subsequent purging of their legal records Sexual Intercourse 0 Incidence of Adolescent Coitus Strong upward trend from the 1950s through 1970s From 1995 to 2009 the percentage of high school students who have had coitus declined somewhat Over the last several decades there has been a trend toward experiencing first coitus at an earlier age in both sexes 0 Reasons for Engaging in Adolescent Coitus About 50 of men and 25 of women in a survey reported that the primary reason for engaging in their initial coital experience was curiosity and feeling ready for sex 0 Factors that Predispose Teenagers to Early or Late Onset of Coitus Psychosocial factors for predisposition of early coitus Poverty family con ict or marital disruption teens living in singleparent or reconstituted families parents lack of education lack of parental supervision substance abuse esp alcohol low self esteem and a sense of hopelessness Poor academic performance and low educational expectations tolerance for antisocial behavior and association with delinquent peers exposure to a diet of television high in sexual content having been sexually victimized Adolescent females with a partner several years older than them are much more likely to experience coitus than females with same sex partners Factors that delay coitus Strong religious beliefs regular religious service attendance spiritual interconnectedness with friends High socioeconomic status good school performance high parental expectations adolescent s belief that they had one or more adult in their lives who cared about them Positive link between delayed onset of teenage sexual activity and high quality parentchild relationships and communication 0 Adolescents Online Social Networking and Communication A number of social scientists suggested that while adolescents often access valuable information and support on various websites electronic communication may also be reinforcing peer communication at the expense of communication with parents A possible consequence of the rise of online networking and communicating may be a reduction in real world interpersonal competence o Adolescent MultiPerson Sex I MultiPerson Sex adolescent sexual interaction involving multiple simultaneous partners that may be either consensual or forced I Increases health risks of participants who often engage in unsafe condomless sex and who may be injection drug users I Females ages 1420 reported 7 have has MPS Homosexuality O O 611 of girls and 1114 of boys report having experienced same sex contact during their adolescent years American society is not noted for embracing the fact of adolescent sexuality Adolescents who are suspected of being gay are sometimes verbally abused bullied sexually harassed or physically assaulted Nationwide there are more than 3000 GayStraight Alliances on middle schools high school and college campuses The Effect of AIDS on Teenage Sexual Behavior 0 0 Most teenagers do not believe they are at risk for contracting HIV most do not significantly alter their sexual behavior to avoid infection Research suggests that having a friend who engages in unprotected sexual intercourse increases the likelihood that a teen will also engage in unprotected intercourse Adolescent Pregnancy Peaked in 1991 618 births to 1000 teens 2009 lowest rate ever recorded 391 per 1000 teens US has highest rate of teen pregnancy in Western industrialized nations Negative Consequences O 0 Pregnant teen is more likely to have physical complications than a woman in her 20s including anemia toxemia hypertension hemorrhage miscarriage and death Can have serious negative effects on her education and financial resources Often underemployed or unemployed and dependent on social service agencies Teen moms often provide parenting of lower quality than adult mothers do Use of Contraceptives 0 Many adolescents do not use any contraceptive at all the first few times they have sexual intercourse Teenage women who experience infrequent intercourse are likely to be ineffective contraception users If they have an older sexual partner or are young when they first have sex adolescent girls are less likely to use protection o Sexually active adolescents in close loving relationships are less likely to use condoms to prevent pregnancies and STIs than those in casual relationships Strategies for Reducing Teenage Pregnancy 0 American family planning clinic system and schoolbased health clinics need to be upgraded and expanded to provide free or low cost contraceptive services to all adolescents who want them 0 US should follow Europeans in establishing a compulsory national sex education curriculum that is extended to all grade levels Safe expression of sexuality should be treated as a health issue rather than a religious or political one o Adolescent boys must share responsibility for birth control measures 0 Condoms should be made readily available in middle schools and high schools 0 Adolescentparent communication about sex must be increased Sex Education Answering Children s Questions About Sex 0 Answer questions without avoiding the subject or acting uncomfortable Putting off questions at an early age means that you as a parent may be confronted with the potentially awkward task or starting the dialogue on sexual matters at a later point in your child s development 0 It can be helpful for parents to include information about sex in everyday conversation that their children can either observe or participate in when appropriate Initiating Conversations When Children do not Ask o It is important that youngsters be aware of these physiological changes before they actually happen 0 Most young people prefer that their parents be the primary source of sex information and that their mothers and fathers equally share in this responsibility 0 Positive parentadolescent communication about sex has been linked to decreased risk of contracting STIs more effective and consistent use of birth control and decreased incidence of teenage pregnancy SchoolBased Sex Education 0 Most efforts to provide sex education in schools have utilized one of two principle approaches comprehensive sex education and abstinenceonly programs