Western Civilizations 2 Week Two - Note #3
Western Civilizations 2 Week Two - Note #3 HIST 242
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adra Anderson on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 242 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Allison Phillips in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see /class/229816/hist-242-university-of-tennessee-knoxville in History at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Western Civilizations 2 The Reformation Focus Questions: 1) How did Martin Luther’s personal experiences shape his theology? 2) How did Protestant beliefs compare to those of Catholics? 3) What was the Catholic Church’s response to the Reformation? Martin Luther (1483 – 1546) o German Monk o College Professor o Religious Humanist o Believed man should be more critical and inquisitive o Perused a secular career o After his career he devoted himself to theology o He believed that salvation is a gift given from God as a result of faith, not good works Johann Fetzel (1465-1519) o Selling Indulgences Troubling for Luther because it meant you could buy religion Corrupt, theologically unsounds Luther and his 95 Theses o He nails his 95 Theses, or Grievances, to the door of the Catholic Church in Latin o He wrote it in Latin because it was meant for the Clergy to read, not the general public, however, someone translated the Theses and published them for the general public to view Catholics v. Protestants o Protestants: Faith alone will give you salvation, the Scripture is the divine absolute truth alone o Catholics: Faith and Good works will give you salvation, the Scripture is the divine absolute truth as well as other sources (e.g. The Pope) Priesthood of Believers: All Christians are equal in the eyes of God – Martin Luther o Bible should be published and printed in the vernacular o Clergy should not “intercede” for God o Commoners can discover God’s truth alone o Any practice or belief not explicitly in the Bible is unnecessary 1) E.g. Idolatry – Worship of idols/things/people The Catholic church was being weakened by corruption For 25 years, every 2 weeks Luther published something o Popular books and pamplets o Most books only get 1,000 copies published, but Luther’s books where published 4,000 times o They were published as Wood Block “political cartoons” to reach people who could not read print The Reformation reaches all social classes, unlike the Renaissance Calvinism: John Calvin (1509-1564) o French o Moves to Geneva, Switzerland o Branch of Protestantism o Advocate of Theocracy o Predestination: Who goes to heaven and who goes to hell are preselected o Consistory: Court that enforces Calvin’s theology in Geneva 1) Congelation 2) Reform 3) Presbyterian Catholic/Counter Reformation: Response from the Catholics to the Reformation o Establishment of Jesuits (Society of Jesus) in 1540 o Jesuits have four basic principles 1) Absolute obedience to the Pope 2) Society has strict hierarchy 3) Education for everybody 4) Existence of Spiritual Warfare Counsel of Trent (1545) o Pope Paul III convened this counsel to outlaw the selling of indulgences o Reaffirmation of Catholic Orthodoxy (Good Faith and Good works) Reformation Ends around 1550 – Lasts Approx. 100 Years
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