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Week 7 Chapter 8

by: Briana Johnson

Week 7 Chapter 8 SOC 1300 - DORSEY

Briana Johnson

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About this Document

Notes from both the book and the lectures of Patrica Dorsey in Soc 1300 FA2016 section 13887
SOC 1300
Patricia Dorsey
Class Notes
Introd to Soc, Dorsey, week7, chapternotes, 13887
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana Johnson on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 1300 - DORSEY at University of Houston taught by Patricia Dorsey in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see SOC 1300 in Sociology at University of Houston.


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Date Created: 10/09/16
Yellow highlight – class title and week notes information Blue highlight – titles and subheadings Green highlight – definitions or important terms/information Introduction to Sociology (SOC 13887) FA 2016: Patricia Dorsey WEEK 7 NOTES  Chapter 8: Cities and Communities (Notes from Book and Lecture) Overview  There are many social phenomena that are clustered together in space and much of our social world is organized by geography What Draws People to Cities?  Urbanization – movement from rural areas to urban cities  More than 50% of the world is urbanized  Work has been a huge pull factor for moving to cities  Cities encapsulate an image of becoming who you want to be and discovering yourself Urbanization and the Growth of Cities   Kingsley Davis o Sociologist/demographer o Argued that in the modern world the process of urbanization follows an “S Curve” whose shape is driven by the timing of industrialization  Great Migration – African Americans move from the rural south to northern industrialized cities Urban, Suburban, and Rural Patterns of Settlement  Conurbs – continuous urban regions extending across cities and suburban political boundaries  Megacities – Cities with a population of over 10 million people  Megaregion – two or more large cities in geographical proximity are linked together through infrastructure and through economic activity  Suburbs – areas within metropolitan regions but outside the political boundaries of central cities  Before the 20 century, suburbs were not densely populated and specialized in trade rather than agriculture  Bedroom Communities – where workers live but do not work  White Flight – the movement of white families out of central cities and into suburbs o Driven by changing demographics o Brings to mind the issues surrounding racial conflict and tension within American cities  Redlining – systems used to determine areas ineligible for loans Yellow highlight – class title and week notes information Blue highlight – titles and subheadings Green highlight – definitions or important terms/information  Suburban Sprawl – the boundaries of suburbs have stretched further from central cities  Edge Cities – self-contained worlds at the junction of major freeways and featuring business and schools and other cultural spaces How Do Neighborhoods Form and Change?    Urban Ecology – different segments of a population sort themselves into the city in which they thrive  Organisms who conform/adjust to their surroundings and fin the best fit within their environments live the best lives  Social and economic integration of different groups within the city relate directly to the form and special layout of the city’s neighborhoods The Political Economy of Cities and Communities    Growth Machine – investors and governments work to increase the size of the city’s population and the level of economic activity occurring within it  Urban change is the direct result of political and economic interest of working to promote growth  Mike Davis o Research on “Growth Coalitions” o Saw that the growth coalitions sought to keep poor African American and Latino populations from spreading into spaces deemed historically important Does Living in Cities Influence Who we are, Our Friends, and How we Live?    We are in an age where people are more connected than ever  Social Isolation – lack of interpersonal communication  Louis Worth – o Defined city as a “large, dense, and permanent settlement of heterogeneous individuals” (1938) o Argued that size, density, and heterogeneity are essential characteristics of cities  Diversity in cities does not lead to interaction among different groups  Georg Simmel – o German sociologist o Ideas laid the foundation for studying the effects of urbanism on individuals o Argued that the contrast barrage of stimuli found in urban settings and the impersonal character of economic interactions lead individuals to live life with an indifferent attitude  In the city, individuals find freedom and isolation at the same time  Herbert Gans – Yellow highlight – class title and week notes information Blue highlight – titles and subheadings Green highlight – definitions or important terms/information o Sociologist o Studied community life in a diverse array of urban and suburban settings o Agreed that there are differences between the type of life in a nonurban and urban areas o Differences are due to factors such as age, race, occupation, and the income of the induvial and not to urbanism o Argues that we should focus on demographic and economic differences between groups in different places  Cities encourage unconventional behavior  Cities have higher rates of artistic innovation, crime, and “extreme” lifestyles  Jane Jacob – o Argued that vibrant neighborhoods that encourage the use of public spaces can foster social connections, interactions, and public safety Communities and Networks    Social Ties – the various types of connections that individuals make with other people  Barry Wellman – o Sociologist o Recognized the problem of classic conceptions of community o Argued that thinking strictly about geography and the layout of the neighborhoods limited urban sociology’s focus  Social Capital – refers to the resources available to individuals through their relationships and networks  Mark Granovetter – o The Strength of Weak Ties (1974) o Studied/interviewed professionals to see how they heard about their jobs  There is strong evidence that communication and interaction within local, physical neighborhoods remain essential to community life  Communities with high levels of cohesion and trust have lower levels of crime and violence Why are so Many Social Problems Found in Cities?    Cities draw diversity to them  Rural areas are dealing with problems that urban areas have always dealt with  Urban Renewal – federal funding to help local governments acquire sections of cities with slum housing in an effort to redevelop the “blighted” areas. Ex: 1949 Housing Act  Urban Ghetto – sections of cities that ae characterized by severe racial or ethnic segregation and deep poverty Concentrated Poverty and the Urban Ghetto  Yellow highlight – class title and week notes information Blue highlight – titles and subheadings Green highlight – definitions or important terms/information  William Julius Wilson o Author o The Truly Disadvantaged (1987) o Theory began by documenting how manufacturing jobs began to disappear leaving minority populations without stable working class jobs o Wilson demonstrated how Civil Rights legislation allowed idle class African Americans to expand boundaries of urban Ghettos or to leave them all together Segregation and Urban Diversity   Hart – Cellar Act (1965) – overrode previous national origins quota system and rapidly hanged the flow of immigration  New evidence suggest that growth in the ethnic diversity of urban neighborhoods may chip away at the traditional boundaries separating whites and black  Segmented Assimilation – immigrants follow one of several pathways of assimilation How will Cities Change in an Increasingly Connected World?  Remittance – Money sent from migrant workers to family and friends at home  Immigrants make up more than a quarter of the population in the nation’s 17 largest cities  Global City – an urban center where the headquarters of transnational firms that create and control the international flow of information and commerce are located  Globalization of economic activities is leading to an increasingly sharp divide between the global elite and the global service


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