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Human Development Chapter 7 Notes

by: Meghan Skiba

Human Development Chapter 7 Notes HD 101

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Human Development > HD 101 > Human Development Chapter 7 Notes
Meghan Skiba

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Chapter 7 notes from Human Development
Intro to Human Development
Dana Harmon
Class Notes
Human Development
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Skiba on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HD 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dana Harmon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Development in Human Development at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 10/09/16
Human Development Chapter 7 Middle Childhood: Body and Mind Middle Childhood Middle Childhood period between early childhood and early adolescence (6-11) safeguarded by genetic and environmental factors Evolutionary Perspective genes protect children who have survived the hazards of birth and childhood Health lower death rates due to immunizations and less lethan accidents Fewer chronic conditions better diagnostic and preventive medical care less secondhand smoke Slow and Steady Growth average child gains about 2 inches and 5 pounds per year maintenance of good health related to adult instruction and regular care Physical Activity Benefits of physical activity can last a lifetime advances in physical, emotional, and mental health Concerns sports are not always beneficial; danger is apparent Obesity Genetic Influences dozens of genes affect weight by influencing activity level, hunder, food preference, body type, and metabolism Parenting Practices Infants: no breast feeding and solid foods before 4 months Preschoolers: bedroom TV watching and soda consumption Schoolagers: 6-11 year olds eat too much, exercise too little, and become overweight/obese Childhood obesity is increasing across the world, and has doubled in the past 30 years Leads to decreased achievement, self esteem failures, and loneliness Health Problems BMI ratio of weight to height, calculated by dividing a person’s body weight in pounds by the square of their height in inches Childhood Overweight BMI > 85% Childhood Obesity BMI > 95% Asthma Definition  Incidence  Signs and Symptoms  Hygiene Hypothesis Cognition: Piaget and Middle Childhood Concrete operational thought ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions Classification logical principle that things can be organized into groups according to some common characteristic Seriation arrangement of things in a series that is crucial for understanding the number sequence Cognition: Vygotsky and Middle Childhood Sources of cognitive stimulation families preschool programs first grade Education occurs everywhere and knowledge is gotten from social context Instruction is essential Guiding each child through the zone of proximal development is a must Brain Connections Piaget recognized that connections allow logical ideas to be applied to many specifics hubs (corpus callosum) links between hypothalamus and amygdala neurological pathways from general to particular and back again Information Processing and The Brain Information processing perspective compares human thinking processes to computers Children’s Cognition in Math Children do not suddenly grasp the logic of number system (Piaget) Math knowledge accrues gradually (Siegler) Some early math achievements do not correlate with later achievements Memory Sensory memory: incoming stimulus information is stored for a split second to allow it to be processed Working memory: current, conscious mental activity occurs (improves gradually) Long-Term memory: limitless amounts of information can be stored indefinitely Information Processing and The Brain Extensive knowledge base makes it easier to master new, related information Factors influencing knowledge base experience current opportunity personal motivation Control Processes emotional regulation selective attention Metacognition understanding one’s own learning; can be considered the ultimate control process Teaching and Learning: Language Vocabulary by age 6, children know most of the basic vocabulary and grammar of their first language in middle childhood, thousands of new words are learned and become more flexible and logical Learning: Code Switching Pragmatics ability to use words and devices to communicate in various contexts allow children to change formal and informal codes to fit audience Bilingual Education A strategy in which school subjects are taught in both the learner’s original language and the second language ELLS (English language learners) ESL (English as a second language) Learning in School International schooling has marked national, ethnic and economic differences cultures differ in what they value educational practices differ within and across cultures variation is greater in hidden curriculum International Testing International Achievement Test Scores (PIRLS) (TIMSS) Achievement within the US: National Standards NCLB Act NAEP Common Core Choices and Complications Overview role of community control and parental choice in education most funding from local jurisdictions Types public charter private home Developmental Psychopathology Four general principles abnormality is normal disability changes year by year life may get better or worse diagnosis and treatment reflect the social context Measuring the Mind Aptitude Achievement Tests Multiple Intelligences IQ Tests Special Needs in Middle Childhood Two basic principles of developmental psychopathology complicate diagnosis and treatment Multifinality Equifinality ADHD inattentiveness, impulsive, and overactive No biological marker Increasing incidence concerns misdiagnosis drug use normal behavior considered pathological Specific Learning Disorder: Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD any of several disorders characterized by poor social understanding, impaired language, and unusual patterns of play cause and treatment disputed most diagnosis at age 4 or later 46 percent in normal or above range on IQ tests


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