Western Civilization 2
Western Civilization 2 HIST 242
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adra Anderson on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 242 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Allison Phillips in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see /class/229816/hist-242-university-of-tennessee-knoxville in History at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Western Civilizations Week Seven Napoleon and His Empire Focus Questions: 1) How can Napoleon be described as BOTH the heir AND the undertaker of the French Revolution? 2) What accounts for the fall of Napoleon? Napoleon (1769-?) o 100 o 100% Product of French Revolution o Capitalized on meritocracy of French Revolution o Established Jacobian Clubs (Radicals) o Defeats a French Army fighting for Monarchy o General by the age 24 Battle of Vendimiare (1795) o Napoleon outnumbered 6:1 o He defeat the royalist uprising o Royalist uprising trying to defeat the Directory o Napoleon becomes a hero and is known throughout France Napoleon as a Hero o Conquers territory and defeats enemies o 1798 – Goes to Egypt – then Syria The conquest does not end well and Napoleon flees to France Conspiracy to overthrow the Directory o Napoleon installs a new French Government o Directory fades into the Consulate o Napoleon becomes First Consol Napoleon as a Politician and General o Institution of Domestic Reforms o Temporary Peace to focus on the Homefront Progressive/Regressive Reforms Ample evidence to prove Napoleon as heir and undertaker Laws: The Napoleonic Code (1804-1811) o Most significant contribution to modern state building o Progressive laws: Preserves equality and independences Outlaws hereditary nobility/class privilege Everyone (including Clergy and Nobility)pays taxes Guarantees free public education for all social classes (boys and girls) Imposes Religious Toleration All white men can vote (Without owning land) Higher Education: University, Trade Schools, Military Schools o Regressive Laws: Womens’s Rights become the Husbands control (Natural Supremacy) Women cannot hold jobs or work outside of the household No rights without the husband’s consent Outlaws paternity suit for illegitimate children (protects men from taking responsibility of their “bastard children” of which Napoleon had a lot of) Reestablishes Catholicism as head Religion Freedom of Express and Freedom of Press is Censored Napoleon is popular with the French People regardless of the regressive laws Napoleon believes all people should be able to improve their life o Meritocracy/Merit 1804 – Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of France with the Blessing of the People o Zenith of power o Returns to the Battle Field European Conquest Rule as absolute Monarch Massive army constructed to destroy Great Britain Battle of Trafalgar ( Oct. 21 1805) o Horatio Nelson (1758-1805) Naval career begins at age 12 British Navy – Greatest Navy in the World at the time He doesn’t lose a single ship at the battle of Trafalgar They defeated Napoleon’s Navy He was shot by a sniper during the battle End of Napoleon’s dream to conquer Great Britain 1810: Napoleon begins to conquer Western Europe over period of six years o Defeats land from Portugal to Russia o Only Great Britain is independent and at war with Napoleon The Continental System: Free Trade union for Napoleon’s Empire o 2 Goals To make his empire economically self-sustaining/prosperous Choke off British Trade o Fails at both goals It hurts the empire overall Unemployment increases Choked itself instead of Great Britain First Serious mistake for Napoleon Russia: Napoleon’s greatest threat The Russian Campaign (June – Dec 1812) o (Napoleon’s air of Invincibility vanishes) o Peace Treaty – Russia agrees to adopt the Continental System’s economic’s Russia heavily relies on trade with Great Britain which is illegal under the Continental System Russia continues to trade with Great Britain o Napoleon invades Russia as a result of breaking the peace treaty The Russian army is smaller than Napoleon’s, however, they constantly retreat into Russia, burning everything in their path that could be useful to Napoleon’s army The Russians wait for “General Winter” to force Napoleon back 5/6ths of Napoleons army died in Russia due to starvation, disease, fatigue, and the harsh winter (aka General Winter) o This is the first time Napoleon had to accept personal defeat The Anti-Napoleon Campaign (Anti-French) o 1814: Napoleon is barricaded in Paris and is forced to resign as Emperor o He is exiled o He escapes from exile within a year, returns to France and raises an army to take back his thrown and reclaim France o His plan is foiled and he is once again exiled to the island of St. Helena where he dies.
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