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Human Development Chapter 8 Notes

by: Meghan Skiba

Human Development Chapter 8 Notes HD 101

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Human Development > HD 101 > Human Development Chapter 8 Notes
Meghan Skiba

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Chapter 8 notes from Human Development
Intro To HUman Development
Erin Miller
Class Notes
Human Development
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Skiba on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HD 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Erin Miller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro To HUman Development in Human Development at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 10/09/16
Human Development Chapter 8 Middle Childhood: The Social World The Nature of the Child Drive for independence from parents expands the social world Self-concept: ideas about self that include intelligence, personality, abilities, gender, and ethnic background Social Comparison involves tendency to assess one’s abilities, achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against those of other people children value the abilities they have and become more realistic recognition of prejudice and affirming pride and gender and background increases Nature of School Age Children Erikson’s Insights Industry vs Inferiority fourth of Erikson’s eight psychosocial stages Children attempt to master culturally valued skills and develop a sense of themselves as either industrious inferior, competent or incompetent Signs of Psychological Maturation Developing Between Ages 6 and 11 Responsibility perform specific chores Manage a weekly allowance and activities Complete homework Attempt to conform peers Express preferences for after school hours Culture and Self Esteem Cultures and families differ in which attitudes and accomplishments they value Emerging self-perception benefits academic and social competence Protect of Puncture Self-Esteem Culture, cohort, and age influence attitudes about self esteem Traditional research findings suggest unrealistically high and unrealistically low self esteem Reduces effortless control May lead to lower achievement and increased aggression Resilience and Stress Resilience Capacity to adapt well to significant adversity and to overcome serious stress Important Components Resilience is dynamic Resilience is a positive adaptation to stress Adversity must be significant Cumulative Stress Stress accumulates over time Daily hassles can be more detrimental than isolated major stress Social context is imperative Child soldiers Homeless children Separation after natural disaster Cognitive Coping Factors contributing to resilience Child’s interpretation of events Support of family and community Personal strengths such as creativity and intelligence Families and Children Shared and nonshared environments Genes affect half or more of the variance for almost every trait Influence of shared environment shrinks with age Effect of nonshared environment increases Family Function Family Function: the way a family works to meet the needs of its members Function is more important than structure, but harder to measure During middle childhood, families help children by: providing basic material necessities encouraging learning helping them develop self respect nurturing friendships Continuity and Change Family function is more important than structure Children value safety and stability Diverse Family Structures Two Parent families nuclear family stepparent family grandparents alone two same sex parents Single Parent families single mother or father (never married) single mother or father (divorced, separated, or widowed) More than two adults extended family polygamous family Connecting Structure and Function: Nuclear Families Function of nuclear families generally function best better education, social, cognitive, and behavioral child outcomes mate selection and income related to nuclear families and child well being Adoptive and same sex parent families typically function well, often better than average nuclear families vary tremendously in ability to meet children’s needs Stepparent families some function well; positive relationships more easily formed with children under 2; more difficult with teenagers Family Trouble Two factors increase the likelihood of dysfunction in every structure, ethnic group, and nation low income or poverty high conflict The Peer Group Culture of Children particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the set of rules and rituals that characterize children as distinct from adult society Friendship school age children value personal friendship more than peer acceptance Older children demand more of their friends change friends less often become more upset when a friendship ends Popular and Unpopular Children Particular qualities that make a child liked or disliked depend on culture, cohort, and sometimes the local region or school Unpopular Children Neglected, but not rejected neglected by peers but not actively rejected ignored but not shunned do not enjoy school but physically unharmed Bullies and Victims Bullying: repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person Bully-victim: someone who attacks others and who is attacked as well (also called provocative victim) Types of bullying physical verbal relational cyberbullying


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