Chapter 7: Axial & Appendicular Skeleton
Chapter 7: Axial & Appendicular Skeleton BIOL 1014
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Audrey Jennings on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1014 at University of Louisiana at Monroe taught by Mrs. Thompson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Biology at University of Louisiana at Monroe.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Chapter 7 Notes Bones: Bone Parts: Projections: Body-main part Process-prominent projection Head-enlarged end Tubercle-small rounded bump Neck-constriction between head & body Tuberosity-knob Margin/Border-edge Trochanter- tuberosities on proximal femur Angle-bend Epicondyle-near/above condyle Ramus-branched off body Condyle-smooth, round articular surface Facet-small, flat articular surface Ridges: Openings: Line/Lines-low ridge Foramen-hole Crest/Crista-prominent ridge Canal/Meatus-tunnel Spine-very high ridge Fissure-cleft/slit Sinus/Labyrinth-cavity Depressions: Fossa-general term for depression Notch-depression in bone margin(edge) Fovea-little pit Groove/Sulcus-deep, narrow depression Axial Skeleton: 80 bones; make up head and trunk Skull Hyoid Vertebral Column Thoracic (rib) Cage Sacrum Appendicular: 126 bones; make up upper & lower limbs (appendages) Arms Legs Pelvic Girdle Pectoral Girdle Skull Bones: frontal (forehead), zygomatic (cheekbone), temporal, nasal, maxilla, mandible, sphenoid (butterfly-shaped), lacrimal, ethmoid, palatine, vomer Bones forming the Orbit of the Eye: frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, maxilla, lacrimal, ethmoid, palatine Bones forming the Nasal Cavity: frontal, nasal, sphenoid, ethmoid, inferior nasal conchae, lacrimal, maxilla, palatine, vomer - Nasal septum includes hyaline cartilage. Paranasal Sinuses: frontal, ethmoidal, sphenoid, maxillary - Functions: decrease skull weight & resonating chambers *Sinus Headaches Vertebral Column: 26 bones in adults (cervical-7, thoracic-12, lumbar-5, sacral, coccygeal) - Functions: support weight of head and trunk, protect spinal cord, allow spinal nerves to exit the spinal cord, provide site for muscle attachment, permit movement of head and trunk - Four Major Curvatures: Cervical (secondary), Thoracic (primary), Lumbar (secondary), Sacral & Coccygeal (primary) - Invertebral Disks: Location: between adjacent vertebrae Function: provide support and prevent vertebrae from rubbing together Consist of: annulus fibrosus (external) & nucleus pulposus (internal; gelatinous) - Herniated/Ruptured Disk: Part of fibrosus has been removed to expose the nucleus pulposus. (Can push against spinal cord, impairing function & causing pain) Pelvic Girdle: 3 Coxal Bones- ilium, ischium, pubis Sacroiliac Joint- receives most of the weight of the upper body (stretches during pregnancy, causing hip pain) - Male Hips -Female Hips larger, heavier smaller, lighter funnel-shaped (tall, narrow) basin-shaped (wider) pelvic inlet heart-shaped pelvic inlet oval-shaped subpubic angle more acute subpubic angle more obtuse
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