Psychology 111, Chapter 9, Cognitive Development section notes
Psychology 111, Chapter 9, Cognitive Development section notes Psychology 111
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Fricke on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 111 at Crafton Hills College taught by Sandra B. Moore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology: Lifespan 111 in Psychology at Crafton Hills College.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Chapter 9: Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 10/09/2016 ▯ So here’s how my notes work: ▯ ▯ All my notes are in an outline form. The titles in red signify the main sections within each chapter. The VOCABULARY WORDS are in all caps and are highlighted in pink. Additionally, words that aren’t considered “vocabulary” (aren’t defined in the glossary), but are probably important to know, are bolded and in pink text. Names and organizations (the “who”) are bolded and put into orange text. Important information is in yellow highlighter, and examples, data, and quotes are highlighted in blue. Sometimes, while reading the textbook, these two options (important info/data) can be a little difficult to differentiate between, so I apologize if you think it should be a different color category. Next, dates can be found in green highlighter. Concepts/steps/theories and things or the like are in white text with purple highlighter. Underlined or bold text basically just means, “Hey, in this super long excerpt of something that’s important, this section is extra important and vital to know”. ▯ ▯ I know the plethora of color can be intimidating at first, but trust me, it works in the long run. When going back to study notes for an exam, it makes it a heck of a lot easier. For example, if you know that the exam is going to be strongly vocabulary based, all you have to search your notes for are the pink terms. In the long run, it helps save you time; your precious time that should be saved for cramming, not searching! ▯ ▯ I hope these notes successfully help you reach your academic goal for this course! Happy studying! ▯ ▯ -Han ▯ ▯ Cognitive Development I. Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage A. Piaget 1. FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE: Piaget’s fourth stage of cognitive development, in which adolescents and near-adolescents begin to think abstractly and to use hypothetical-deductive reasoning a. Abstract thinking: the ability to think about possible situations, ideas, and objects that are not immediately present or obvious i. Advanced mathematics require abstract thinking b. HYPOTHETICAL-DEDUCTIVE REASONING: the ability to formulate varying solutions in one’s mind and to think through the effectiveness of each possible solution i. Extension of metacognition c. Who can think formally? i. Not everyone achieves this level Some cultures do not reach it with out exposure to certain types of thinking II. Adolescent Egocentrism A. David Elkind 1. ADOLESCENT EGOCENTRISM: Elkind’s term to describe the adolescent perception that one is at the center of the social world a. Elkind’s theory of adolescent egocentrism: i. IMAGINARY AUDIENCE: Elkind’s term to describe the adolescent’s assumption that his or her preoccupation with personal appearance and behavior is shared by everyone else ii. PERSONAL FABLE: Elkind’s term to describe the adolescent belief that one is special and unique, and thus, inevitable Natural consequence of imaginary audience III. Decisions & Risks A. Ability to assess risk becomes a key aspect of adolescent decision making 1. Adolescents aren’t very good at assessing actual risk in relation to long-term consequences a. Know drunk driving is a risk, but likelihood that negative consequences will occur to THEM, tends not to be part of their thought process 2. OPTIMISTIC BIAS: a tendency for people to underestimate their own risk & overestimate the risk to someone else engaged in the same type of behavior 3. The stages of substance use a. Typically occur in order i. Experimental ii. Social iii. Instrumental iv. Habitual v. Compulsive ▯ ▯ ▯