KIN 312 Wu Fall 2016 - Week 7 lecture notes
KIN 312 Wu Fall 2016 - Week 7 lecture notes KIN 312
Long Beach State
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie Wong on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 312 at California State University Long Beach taught by Wilbur Wu in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Motor Control in Kinesiology at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
KIN 312: Fall 2016 – Week 7 10/3/16 Natalie Wong ***Notes derived from Dr. Wu’s Lecture PPT “Preparing and Executing a Plan of Action” I. Action Preparation o Involves the events that occur in the nervous system from the intention of an action to the initiation of an action o Another way of saying REACTION TIME o Cognitive level o Neuromotor level II. Cognitive Level STEPS: 1) Making the decision to act; have an intention · Driven by: ~ Internal goals = you decide to make movement/decision (Ex: stepping on the gas pedal when a traffic light turns green) ~ Response to the environment = someone or something else makes decision for you (Ex: throwing a football to a receiver before you get tackled) 2) Develop a general plan · How appropriate the action plan is for the situation is determined by: ~ Previous experience (driven by implicit knowledge that comes from repetition and exposure) ~ Evaluation of the situation (affected by previous experience) 3) Adding details to the plan · Selecting various movement parameters (force, velocity, displacement) · Which body part will be used? · What environmental characteristics are present? o Task Influences of Preparation The number of response choices · Hick’s Law: RT = K log (N+1) ~ K = simple RT ~ N = number of choices The Predictability of the Correct Response Choice · As predictability increases RT decreases Influence of precue correctness (Ex: precue = “ready, get set, go”, or a movement that most always precedes an action of the person giving the precue · If 50/50 chance of correct precue no preference · If 80/20 chance of correct precue bias towards higher probability StimulusResponse Compatibility · Drives most everything that we do! · RT will be faster is the relationship between the stimulus and response are compatible · Ex: Stroop Effect – flash a color word in a different color than the word. Foreperiod Length Regularity KIN 312: Fall 2016 – Week 7 10/3/16 Natalie Wong · If the foreperiod is the same for every simple RT task, RT will decrease (you’re adding predictability) Movement Complexity · RT increases as the number of component parts in a movement increases Movement Accuracy · As accuracy demands increase for a task, the amount of preparation time increases Repetition of Movement · If the same movement is required for many trials, the trials later in the sequence will have decreased RT’s o Influences on the Performer Initiation Alertness of a performer · The more alert and attentive the athlete is, the more reduced the initiation time is Attentional Focus (signal vs. movement) · RT is reduced when performers focus on a signal rather than a movement or set of movements · EX: Sprinter – think more about the gunshot (signal) to start vs. the mechanics involved in pushing off the starting block (movement) III. Neuromotor Level o Planning and execution associated with 4 areas in CNS (central nervous system) 1) Limbic System · Surround hypothalamus · Structures in system = fornix, amygdala, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus RESPONSIBLE for our intention to act 2) Association Cortex · Distributed throughout cortex · Intention to act from limbic system is transferred to the association cortex to FORM a general plan · Function: recognition, selection, and integration relative to sensory input 3) Projection System RESPONSIBLE for determining how action should be carried out/adding details · Consists of the sensory and motor areas of the cortex and other subcortical nuclei (basal ganglia, cerebellum, and motor cortex) 4) Spinal System · Regulates timing of the muscle activation patterns RESPONSIBLE for fine tuning the systems · Feedback loops between the systems allows the CNS to make modifications based on comparisons between the action produced and the action goal
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