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PSYC 1101 Week 8 Notes

by: Madeline Pearce

PSYC 1101 Week 8 Notes psyc 1101

Madeline Pearce

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About this Document

elementary psychology
Janet Frick
Class Notes
Psychology, Intro to Psychology, PSYC1101, Elementary, chapternotes, uga, cyterski, Lecture Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Pearce on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psyc 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Janet Frick in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see elementary psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 10/09/16
PSYC 1101 Week 8 Notes Chapter 8: Development Across the Lifespan (cont’d) ● The senses, except for vision, are fairly well developed at the time of birth. ● Brain Development ○ Myelination: the process of forming a myelin sheath around a nerve to allow nerve impulses to move more quickly. ○ Synaptic Pruning: the process by which extra neurons and synaptic connections are eliminated in order to increase the efficiency of neuronal transmissions. Cognitive Development ● Cognitive Development: development of the mental processes of thinking, problem solving, and memory ● Jean Piaget: developed four stages of cognitive development theory based on observations in paris schoolchildren ○ Schemas: mental concepts formed as a result of exposure to new events and scenarios ○ Assimilation: taking in new information or experiences and incorporating them into existing ideas ○ Accommodation: when new information or experiences cause modification of existing schemas ● Four Stages ○ Sensorimotor stage (birth-2 years): Piaget’s first stage of cognitive development, in which the infant uses its senses and motor abilities to interact with objects in the environment ■ object permanence: the knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight 1 ○ Preoperational stage (2-7 years): Piaget’s second stage of cognitive development, in which the preschool child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world ■ egocentrism: the inability to see the world through anyone else’s eyes ■ centration: in Piaget’s theory, the tendency of a young child to focus only on one feature of an object while ignoring other relevant features ■ conservation: in Piaget’s theory, the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object’s nature ■ irreversibility: in Piaget’s theory, the inability of the young child to mentally reverse an action ○ Concrete operations stage (7-12 years): third stage of cognitive development, in which the school-aged child becomes capable of logical thought processes but is not yet capable of abstract thinking ○ Formal operations (12 years onward): Piaget’s last stage of cognitive development, in which the adolescent becomes capable of abstract thinking ■ Piaget’s final stage ■ thinking of hypothetical situations ■ egocentric thought remains ■ Personal fable: young people believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm ■ Imaginary audience: young people believe that other people are just as concerned about the adolescent’s thoughts and characteristics as they themselves are ● Vygotsky ○ Scaffolding: process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, then reduces the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable ○ Zone of proximal development (ZPD): the difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with the help of a teacher ○ Private speech: Vygotsky viewed this as a way for a child to “think out loud” and advance cognitively 2 ● Language development allows children to: ○ think in words rather than images ○ ask questions ○ communicate their needs ○ form concepts ● Child-directed speech: children attend to higher-pitched, repetitious, sing-song speech ● Stages of Language Development ○ Cooing ○ Babbling ○ One-Word Speech (Holophrases) ○ Telegraphic Speech ○ Whole sentences ● Autism spectrum disorder (ASD): developmental disorder encompassing a range of problems in thinking, feeling, language, and social skills ○ myths relating ASD and vaccines have been debunked ● Temperament: behavioral characteristics that are fairly well established at birth ○ easy: regular, adaptable, and happy ○ difficult: irregular, nonadaptable, and irritable ○ slow to warm up: need to adjust gradually to change ● Attachment: the emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver ○ secure: willing to explore; upset when mother departs, but easily soothed upon her return ○ avoidant: unattached; explores without “touching base” ○ ambivalent: insecurely attached; upset when mother leaves and then angry with mother upon her return ○ disorganized-disoriented: insecurely attached and sometimes abused or neglected; child seems fearful, dazed, and depressed ● Harlow monkey experiment 3 ○ In this experiment The wire surrogate “mother” provides the food for this infant rhesus monkey. But the infant spends all its time with the soft, cloth-covered surrogate. ○ According to Harlow, this demonstrates the importance of contact comfort in attachment. ● Self-concept is the image you have of yourself ○ based on your interactions with the important people in your life. ● Kohlberg’s Levels of Morality ○ Preconventional morality: behavior is governed by the consequences of the behavior ○ Conventional morality: behavior is governed by conforming to society’s norms of behavior ○ Postconventional morality: behavior is governed by moral principles that have been decided on by the individual ■ may be in disagreement with accepted social norms ● Erikson’s First Four Stages ○ Trust versus mistrust: first stage of personality development the infant’s basic sense of trust or mistrust develops as a result of consistent or inconsistent care ○ Autonomy versus shame and doubt: second stage of personality development the toddler strives for physical independence 4 ○ Initiative versus guilt: third stage of personality development the preschool-aged child strives for emotional and psychological independence and attempts to satisfy curiosity about the world ○ Industry versus inferiority: fourth stage of personality development the adolescent strives for a sense of competence and self-esteem ● Puberty & Adolescence ○ Adolescence: the period of life from about age thirteen to the early twenties, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet an independent, self-supporting adult ○ Puberty: the physical changes that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak period of about four years ● Erikson’s Fifth Stage of Development ○ Identity versus role confusion: fifth stage of personality development the adolescent must find a consistent sense of self ○ Parent–teen conflict ● Adulthood begins in the early twenties and ends with old age and death divided into young adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood emerging adulthood, time from late adolescence through the 20s ● Women experience a physical decline in the reproductive system called the climacteric ○ ends at about age fifty with menopause: the cessation of ovulation and menstrual cycles and the end of a woman’s reproductive capability ● Andropause: gradual changes in the sexual hormones and reproductive system of males ○ Increase in health problems Decrease in reaction time ○ Challenges in memory most likely caused by stress and high volumes of information to maintain 5 ● Erikson’s Last Three Stages ○ Intimacy versus isolation : an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining a sense of self ○ Generativity versus stagnation : providing guidance to one’s children or the next generation, or contributing to the well-being of the next generation through career or volunteering ■ parenting styles ○ Ego integrity versus despair : sense of wholeness that comes from having lived a full life and the ability to let go of regrets; the final completion of the ego ● Theories of Aging ○ Cellular clock theory: based on the idea that cells only have so many times that they can reproduce once that limit is reached, damaged cells begin to accumulate ○ Wear-and-tear theory: as time goes by, repeated use and abuse of the body’s tissues cause it to be unable to repair all the damage ○ Free radical theory: oxygen molecules with an unstable electron move around the cell, damaging cell structures as they go ○ Activity theory: theory of adjustment to aging that assumes older people are happier if they remain active in some way, such as volunteering or developing a hobby ● Stages of Death & Dying ○ Denial ○ Anger ○ Bargaining ○ Depression ○ Acceptance ● Cross Cultural Views ○ While Westerners see a person as either dead or alive, in some cultures a person who, by Western standards is clearly alive, is 6 mourned as already dead—as is the case in many Native American cultures. THE BEGINNING OF CHAPTER 9 (notes from Friday 10/7) WILL BE INCLUDED ON NEXT WEEK’S NOTES 7


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