Language Geography Notes
Language Geography Notes GEOG140
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tran on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG140 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Rebecca Buller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Geography in Geography at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Language Geography 10/6/16 Watched “A tour of the British Isles in Accents” Talked about classes in geography that can go with your major Watched a “Can You Guess” Video; people with accents from different places read a sentence in English and you guess where they’re from I. Basics a. Language; set of sounds, combinations of sounds, and symbols used for communication b. Standard language: language that is published, widely distributed, and purposefully taught i. Ex: Northern Mandarin Chinese c. Role of government in standardizing a language i. Ex: official language: government-selected language/languages to try to enhance communication in a multilingual state 1. Ex: Portuguese in Angola II. Language & Placemaking a. Place: the uniqueness of a location, what people do in a location, what they create, how they impart a certain character, a certain imprint on the location b. Toponym: a place name i. Imparts certain character on a place ii. Reflects the social processes in a place iii. Can give a glimpse of the history of a place iv. Major reasons people change toponyms: 1. After decolonization a. Ex: East & West Berlin= Berlin 2. After a political revolution a. Ex: revolution in Russia 3. To commodify/brand a place a. (ex: The Railyard= rebranded the haymarket) 4. To memorialize people/events a. (ex: Lincoln= named after Abraham Lincoln) III. Language Formation a. Linkages among languages marked by sound shifts, slight changes in a word across languages over time i. Ex: Milk: 1. Lacte in Latin 2. Leche in Spanish 3. Lait in French 4. Latta in Italian b. Language convergence: when peoples with different languages have consistent interaction and their languages blend into one c. Language divergence: the breakup of a language into dialects and then new languages from lack of interaction among speakers i. Dialect: a variant of standard languages by ethnicity or region 1. by vocabulary, cadence, pronunciation 2. ex: Harvard dialect survey: shows map of places that pronounce words differently The Linguists Documentary Notes Two Linguists= David & Greg Opens up with group of Natives praying over 2 linguists then killed a mouse Linguist: scientist who studies language More than 7000 languages in the world Smaller languages are being lost/dying - 2 Linguistics travel and study those small languages Dying language stems from children who stop using the language First Stop: Siberia - Russia oppresses languages in Siberia - Chulym: language in Siberia that is dying o There’s only one research left (active 30 years ago) - Mayor of original town of Chulym spoke with them o Spoke ill of Chulym people - Went around w/mayor to see how many people spoke Chulym - First Chulym speaker= elderly man nd - 2 Chulym speaker= monologue of woman who spoke Chulym and cursed rd - 3 Chulym speaker= 90 year old woman who was deaf - Mayor turned out to be fluent in Chulym o Chulym was viewed as an ashamed culture Children were forbidden to speak Chulym in school Second Stop: India - Visited boarding school that had many children from different villages - Had kids help them find villages w/ dying language - Dying Language: Sora o Must have access from gov to go to tribal villages= had Doctor friend help o Mr. Ponda from school, Doctor and her son, and linguists traveled to the village - Village ran by outcasts o “Robinhood” like attitude towards rich o Barely 300,000 people are registered out of 3 billion o Music= core of village 10/11 IV. The Study of Historical Languages a. Backward reconstruction: tracking sound shifts and the hardening of consonants backward to reveal an “original” language i. can deduce the vocab of an extinct language ii. can recreate ancient languages b. Historical linkages among languages i. Nostroatic language ii. Proto-Indo-European Languages 1. Renfrew hypothesis: began in the Fertile Crescent and later became: a. Europe’s languages from Anatolia (Turkey) i. Ex: major indo-European branch languages in contemporary Europe 1. Romance, [Spanish, French, Italian] 2. Germanic, [English, Dutch, German, Swedish] 3. Slavic [Polish, Czech, Russian] b. North Africa and Arabia’s languages from the western arc of Fertile Crescent i. Egypt and SW of that c. Southwest Asia and South Asia’s languages from the eastern arc of Fertile Crescent i. Ex: languages in present-day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India V. Language Diffusion (how languages spread over time) a. Human interaction b. Print distribution c. Migration d. Trade e. Rise of nation-states f. Colonialism VI. Effects of Spatial Interaction a. Pidgin language: language created when people combine parts of two/more languages into a simplified structure and vocabulary b. Creole language: pidgin language that has developed a more complex structure & vocabulary and has become the native language of a group of people c. Lingua franca: language used among speakers of different languages for trade and commerce [ex: English, French, Mandarian] i. On the global scale: 1. Continued use of native languages for day-to day activities 2. English is lingua franca for: a. Commerce b. Science c. Travel d. Business e. Popular culture Ex: English as lingua franca in Nigeria i. More than 400 languages ii. A colonial creation iii. Choice of English as “official” language Ex: the globalization of English on the internet Irish slang ‘craic’ pronounced ‘crack’= having fun Watched youtube video on Elevator Voice Recognition-funny video Continue Video of Language After dancing with villagers tried given $1000…but villagers wanted more …gave them $1500 Greg wanted to stay night in Village for full immersion o No one on trip wanted to b/c danger nd 2 village also danced & partied o Greg tried interviewing soran speaker in soran o Started pointing at basic words on body to learn soran Complicated number system base 12 and 20 o Learn language by immersing Kaulawaia? Other small language o Lake tidicocka = camp site location st o Able to record 1 ever kaulawai language
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