Class Notes for week of 10/2: Emerging and Re-Emerging Diseases
Class Notes for week of 10/2: Emerging and Re-Emerging Diseases SPHU-2150-01
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claire Jacob on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPHU-2150-01 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Jeffrey Wickliffe in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Environmental Public Health in Public Health at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases Class Notes 9/27 Causes for re-remerging diseases Antibiotic and pesticide use Growing human population Climate change Animal husbandry practices Increase in international travel Agents of Disease Prion- improperly folded protein Viruses- no nucleus Bacteria Protozoa- simplest single-celled organism Helminthes- parasitic worms Zoonosis Disease transmissible from vertebrate animals to humans Transmission Methods Contact with the skin A bite or scratch from an animal Inhalation or ingestion Arthropods Vector Transmits disease between humans or from animals to humans Major Vector-Borne Diseases Malaria Leishmaniasis Plague Lyme Disease Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Malaria Found in >100 countries… that leaves us with >40% of the World population at risk Costs- treatment and prevention o Lost productivity, lost earnings, negative impacts upon travel and tourism Kids are most susceptible Transmitted by protozoa Anopheles Mosquito Signs/Symptoms o Fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, liver damage Use DDT to control vectors Leishmaniasis (sores) Transmitted by sandflies Rodents, humans, and dogs (carnivores) are the reservoir Screens prevent sandflies from entering dwellings Plague Bacteria Yersinia pestis Transmitted from fleas harbored by rats Reduce places where you might find the rats Lyme disease Caused by bacteria Transmitted by ticks Rocky Mountain Fever Bacteria Febrile disease (causes fever) Transmitted by ticks Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Require insect or animal hosts Arthropod-Borne Viral Diseases Transmitted by ticks, sandflies, mosquitos, fleas Arboviral Disease Acute central nervous system virus Arthritis Arboviral Encephalitides Viral-borne Inflammation in sections of the brain and spinal cord West Nile Virus Mosquito-borne arboviral fever No s/s in most infected Febrile in some flu-like Less than 1% develop severe symptoms Anthropronotic human to human or human to animal (although human to animal is very uncommon) Factors Associated with re-remerging zoonosis Ecological change from agricultural practices Migration Avian Influenza Virus Antigenic Shift Control of Mosquito-borne Diseases Drain standing water Repellents and clothing Window screens Intro mosquito-eating fish into ponds Use sentinel chickens to monitor for prevalence
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