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Week 6 Notes

by: Matt McDonald

Week 6 Notes CHEM 100

Matt McDonald

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About this Document

These notes cover the past week's worth of material, including: Chemistry of Carbon Alkyl Groups Versions of Hydrocarbons Transisomers Halogenated Hydrocarbons Polymers
Intro to Chemistry
Max Eisenburg
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Matt McDonald on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 100 at Towson University taught by Max Eisenburg in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Intro to Chemistry in Chemistry at Towson University.

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Date Created: 10/09/16
10/3/16  More Equations in Oxidation o 4Fe + 3O  =2+3e O 2(­3idation of Iron) o 4Fe = 4Fe  + 12e (Half reaction, oxidation)  More Equations in Reduction  ­ ­2 o 3O  +212e = 6O  (Half reaction, reduction)  Metals and Oxidation  o Metals naturally occur in some oxidized form o Fe O2 (3ust) o The oxidation of metal is a spontaneous process  Spontaneous meaning energetically favored to occur, according to  thermodynamics  Will occur naturally  Chemistry of Carbon (Organic Chemistry)  Simple Hydrocarbons o Ex. CH  =4Methane (simplest Hydrocarbon) (See Diagram 1)   Complex Hydrocarbons o Ex. CH CH3 (E3hane) (See Diagram 2) o List of complex versions goes on  Types of Hydrocarbons o Alkane (only single carbon to carbon bonds)  Ex. Ethane (See Diagram 2) o Alkene (have double carbon to carbon bonds)  Ex. Ethene (See Diagram 3) o Alkyne (have triple carbon to carbon bonds)  Ex. (See Diagram 4)  Isomers o Some compounds of hydrocarbons can be written in different variations of  molecular form, but still have the same number of each atom o Ex. C H5 (12e Diagram 5)  Non­Isomer o Ex. Propane (See Diagram 6)   Still Propane, just different versions  More Complex Hydrocarbons o C H6 (6enzene) (See Diagram 7)  Circular form is a Circulation of Bonding Electrons (Aromatic)  Delocalization—Carbon is not set to one Hydrogen atom, but move  around the ring to each  Rules o Hydrogen will always form a bond o Carbon will always form 4 bonds  Bond Lengths o Single (largest) o Double (shorter) o Triple (shortest) 10/5/16  Alkyl Groups o Bonds/structures that are of a certain element/compound that are not complete o Enables them to attach to other bonds o Still part of that elemental/compound group, just not complete o Ex. CH  (4ethane); ­CH  (M3thyl Group)  See Diagram 8  Alkyl Groups vs. Isomers o NOT the same o Isomers are different versions of the same compound that are still complete  Just different structural setups o Alkyl Groups are versions of an element that are part of the compound, but not  completely the same o Ex. Alkyl Group   (C 2 6OR CH C 3;3(CH CH2)  3  Still a part of the original, just not finished  See Diagram 9 o Ex. Isomer  2,3 di­isomer of Benzene v. 1,3 di­isomer of Benzene  the exact same setup, just on different points in the hexagonal shape  See Diagram 9  Transisomers o Isomers that have the same structural shape, but the elements switch places o Ex. See Diagram 10  Hydrocarbons with Oxygen o Ex. Ethyl Alcohol (a.k.a. Ethanol)  The C­O­H grouping is called a Hydroxyl Group  Contains Oxygen  Still Alkyl because it is connected to Oxygen first, not Hydrogen  See Diagram 11 o Ex. Propanone  See Diagram 12 o Ex. Acetic Acid  O=C­O­H grouping is called a Carboxyl Group (part of Carboxylic Acids)  See Diagram 13  Hydrocarbons with Nitrogen o Ex. CH NH3 (A2ine/Methyl Amine)  See Diagram 14  Combining Hydrocarbons  o Ex. Amine + Carboxylic Acid  Reactions with H2O product are called Condensation Reactions  See Diagram 15 o Ex. Alcohol + Carboxylic Acid  The C­O­C=O grouping is called Ester  Like Carboxyl but with C, not H  See Diagram 16 10/7/16  Halogenated Hydrocarbons o Compounds containing Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, etc. o Ex. CHCl  (3hloroform)        C2 C2  (Methylene Chloride)  Freons (Refrigerants) o Hydrogen atoms totally replaced by Halogens o Ex. CCl C3 (C3 orofluro Carbons)  See Diagram 17  Polymers o Macromolecules with regular repeating units o Macromolecules have very large Molar Masses (in the thousands)  Natural Polymers o Starches o Cellulose o Proteins o Nucleic Acids  Synthetic Polymers o Addition Type o Condensation Type  Addition Type o Stepwise addition of monomer molecules to make polymer molecules  Monomers are used to build polymers o Ex. Suppose A is a monomer molecule (See Diagram 18)  The monomer becomes a diradical (having two unpaired electrons)  The diradical adds to the original  That product adds to the original  The process continues until the Molar Mass is in the thousands o Ex. H C2CH  (M2nomer used to make Polymers)  See Diagram 19 o Some glues are monomers that make polymers  Superglue, when it hits air, gets hard because it forms polymers after being exposed to Oxygen   Condensation Type o Form from condensation reactions o Have H O 2s a product o Ex. Polyester  DiAlcohol + DiCarboxylic Acid = Polyester  See Diagram 20 o Ex. Polyamide  DiAmide + DiCarboxylic Acid = Polyamide  N­C=O grouping is called an Amide Group  See Diagram 21


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