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BIOL 222 Week 6 Ending with Immune System Cont., Starting with Cardiac (Heart)

by: tanae tabron

BIOL 222 Week 6 Ending with Immune System Cont., Starting with Cardiac (Heart) Biol222-001

Marketplace > Towson University > Biology > Biol222-001 > BIOL 222 Week 6 Ending with Immune System Cont Starting with Cardiac Heart
tanae tabron

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The notes is a continuance of the immune system followed by the start of the cardiac.
Anatomy and Physiology II
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by tanae tabron on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol222-001 at Towson University taught by Dr.Winters in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at Towson University.


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Date Created: 10/09/16
Immune System Cont. Antigen Processing in APCs (Macrophages; Phagocytic Antigen-presenting cell) 1. APC encounters Ag (antigen) 2. Internalizes it by endocytosis 3. Digests it into molecular fragments 4. Displays relevant fragments (epitopes) on MHC ll protein on cell surface T cells and Cell-mediated Immunity 3 Steps Step 1 – antigen presentation – by the MHC protein 1. A “processing” cell to break the antigen down into fragments and then  “present” these fragments on their cell surface bound to:  MHC (major histocompatibility complex) proteins are the membrane proteins that do the presenting.  Like waving a red flag to attract T cells to check it out  (antigen ad the flag; MHC protein as the flag pole)  (hot dog bun as MHC and antigen as the hot dog) 1. MHC l proteins – present in all cells except RBCs  Presents random sample of cytoplasm: may/may not contain antigens (be infected), may or may not be destroyed  If its abnormal or viral, then T cells with CD8 marker (Tc cells – cytotoxic T cells), recognize MHC l cells, became activated and will kill infected cell. 2. MHC ll proteins – only in antigen presenting cells (APCs) (phagocytic cells and B cells)  Only abnormal antigenic fragments appear in these membranes, so if MHC ll proteins and fragments appear, then the cell will be automatically marked for destruction because it is infected.  MHC ll proteins and antigens are recognized by T cells with CD4 (marker helper T – TH cells); 3 prolonged attack activates, T cells and stimulates B cells to produce antibodies and attract non-specific. Step 2 – Antigen recognition – By T cell 1. T cells with receptors for that particular antigen recognize MHC proteins displaying antigen 2. CD markers on the T cells assist in recognition  CD8 – found on cytotoxic T cells Tc (and memory and regulatory for MHC)  CD4 – found on helper T cells – Th – for MHC Step 3 – then activation of T and B cells – leads to destruction of abnormal or infected cells. 1. Activation of CD4 – Th cells 2. Activated cells undergo mitosis to form more active Th cells as well as memory Th cells. 3. Activated Th cells secrete various cytokines including interleukins, to coordinate cellular and humoral immunity and the specific and non– specific defenses.  Attracts macrophages and NK cells (non-specific)  Stimulates mitosis of Tc cells  Promotes activation of B cells to produce antibodies. Humoral Immunity – antibody production – circulating in plasma 1. B lymphocytes of humoral immunity produce Abs (antibody) that bind to Ags and tag them for destruction 2. Immunocompetent B cell has thousands of surface receptors for one Ag – bind Ag 3. Activation begins when an Ag binds to several of these receptors  Links them together  Taken into cell by receptor – mediated endocytosis  B cell processes (digests) Ag  Links some epitopes to its MHC ll proteins  Displays these on cell surface (acts as an APC) Recognition 1. Most B cells need binding by a Th to this Ag – MHC ll complex for activation  Bound Th cell secretes interleukins to activate B cell 2. Triggers clonal selection – mitosis  B cell mitosis yields army of identical B cells programmed against same Ag  Most differentiate into plasma cells – and some memory  Larger than B cells and contain abundant rough ER  Secret Ab molecules/second during 4-5-day life span  Abs travel through body in blood or other body fluids Attack: Antibody structure (immunoglobin) – 2 heavy and 2 light chains 1. Variable (V) region in all 4 chains  Outer part of Y (upper half of top parts of Y)  Gives Ab its uniqueness – has antigen binding site 2. Antigen – binding site: formed from V regions of heavy and light chain on each arm  Attacks to epitope of an Ag molecule 3. Constant © region has same amino acids sequence within one person  Determines mechanism of Ab action How Do Antibodies Work? 1. Neutralization  Abs mask pathogenic region of Ag 2. Complement fixation  Ag binds to Ab, Ab changes shape, initiates complement binding... opsinization, cytolysis. 3. Agglutination – clumping  Ab has 2 binding sites; bind to multiple enemy cells to immobilize them and prevent spreading  Too big to more easily and/or gets stuck 4. Precipitation  Ab binds Ag molecules (not cells) creation Ag-Ab complex that precipitates  Ag – Ab complex then phagocytized by eosinophils Cardiac #1 Review heart basics from lab: 1. Pulmonary circuit vs. systemic circuit 2. Oxygenated blood vs. deoxygenated blood 3. Arteries – away from heart – efferent  Capillaries – thin – walled exchanged vessels, where exchanged o nutrients and wastes takes place 4. Veins – afferent – towards heart  Oxygenated blood from arteries goes into arteries, exchange takes place and capillaries empty into veins 5. Chambers  Atria  Ventricles – “pumping” chambers 6. Valves  Semilunar – between ventricles and vessels  Pulmonary  Aortic  “A-V valves” (atrioventricular) – between atria and ventricles  Bicuspid – “mitral” – left side  Tricuspid – right 7. Fibrous skeleton  4 dense fibrous bands around the heart valves and base of aorta and pulmonary trunk  Functions:  Provides strength and stability to heart  Physically and electrically isolates atria from ventricles Structure of Cardiac Muscle 1. Cardiocytes – cardiac myocytes – striated, short, thick, branched cells, usually one central nucleus: 2. Intercalated discs – join cardiocytes end to end  Mechanical junctions tightly join cardiocytes  Desmosomes – spot welding between cells  Prevent cardiocytes from being pulled apart  Interdigitating folds: interlock cells and increase surface area of contact  Electrical junctions (gap junctions) allows ions to flow between cells: action potentials can spread to neighboring cells  Allows entire myocardium of either two atria or two ventricles acts like single, unified cell Metabolism of Cardiac Muscle 1. Cardiac muscle depends almost exclusively on aerobic respiration to make ATP  Rich in myoglobin and glycogen  Many mitochondria: fill 25% of cell 2. Fatigue resistant – very little anaerobic metabolism


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