Chapter 7 Notes
Chapter 7 Notes CJ 240
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michela Spicer on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 240 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Joshua Wakeham in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Juvenile Delinquency in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Gender and Delinquency Juvenile delinquency is an overwhelmingly male problem o 2014 arrests- female delinquents are only 29% of total (1 million juvenile arrests) 18% of Violent Crime Index 34% of Property Crime Index 36% of Non-Index crimes o As of 2013, females accounted for 14% of the population of confined juveniles nationally Gender Differences What accounts for these differences in delinquent behavior? oNature or nurture? Socialization oFemales: sustain relationships, socially aggressive, blame self oMales: independent, physically aggressive, externalize anger Cognitive oFemales: superior verbal ability, deceptive about bad behavior oMales: visual-spatial and math ability Personality oFemales: lower self-esteem, self-aware, better attention span oMales: higher self-esteem, materialistic, lower attention span Emotional oFemales: internalize emotions, express sadness and anxiety oMales: externalize emotions, express anger Gendered socialization oBoy culture vs. girl culture oGender-schema theory Gender “scripts” internalized Self understood in gendered terms oGender similarity hypothesis Men and women more alike than different Gender roles and self-fulfilling prophesies The Big Question Are girls catching up with boys when it comes to delinquency? Cause for Concern? Rates of juvenile crime going down oRate for girls falling slower Notable increase in number of girls arrested for violent crimes- in particular, assault oLikely a problem of classification oShift from status offenses to crimes Focusing on Female Delinquency KEY: we don’t need a “wave of female delinquency” to justify greater attention to the problem oHistorically fewer numbers has meant less attention overall oFemale offending is different than male offending oMany theories based on male offending By the Numbers Incarcerated female delinquents younger than male counterparts o>50% 15-16 year old females vs. >50% 16-17 year old males Girls are more likely to be status offenders than boys o11% of incarcerated girls vs. 3% of incarcerated boys Patterns in Female Delinquency Female juvenile delinquency stronger association with victimization More likely to report abuse as reason for running away than boys oFather/mother’s boyfriend + unsupportive mother Thinking Critically about Delinquent Girls Feminist perspective: most criminological theories designed with boys/men in mind Clear need for more empirical research on delinquent girls Many girls get caught up in the juvenile justice system because those in authority want to “help” them oIs the system re-victimizing them? Many Mistaken Theories about Female Delinquents Early biological theories oCaesar Lombroso (1895): The Female Offender Women “lower” on evolutionary scale Masculinity Hypothesis Early psychological theories oFreud- Penis Envy Contemporary Trait Views The role of early puberty and precocious sexuality o Strong correlation between early sexual development and delinquent behavior o Hormonal or socialization? o “Early bloomers”- gain attention from older, delinquent males Increases chance of victimization Why do some girls mature early? o Research: girls whose fathers abandon their families are more likely to mature earlier o Initial explanation (Belsky): paternal absence leads to stress, which induces early puberty o Recent research (Comings et al.): paternal abandonment and early onset puberty share are genetic Girls whose fathers die do not experience early puberty Research (Pajer et al.): girls with conduct disorder have lower cortisol levels, suggesting a “dysregulation of the hypothalamic- pituatary-adrenal axis” Male hormones oFemales with higher testosterone are more likely to be delinquent o Exposure to testosterone in utero is more likely to lead to masculine traits, including delinquency Contemporary Psychological Views Because girls are less likely to be system-involved, those who are system-involved are more likely to have serious psychological problems oTraumatic intimate relationships oMood disorders oPersonality disorders Contemporary Socialization Views Stronger family bonds, greater supervision insulates more girls than boys Poor home life more damaging to girls than boys oPhysical and sexual abuse and female delinquency oTrauma, victimization Feminist Explanations Liberal feminism: social roles provide girls fewer opportunities for delinquency Critical feminism: focuses on unequal power as the source of exploitation of girls, associated delinquency Juvenile Justice Treatment The resource problem: oRural states, areas oWhat do you do with serious female offenders? The Other Side of the Equation Is delinquency and crime a male problem? The Male Crime Problem Boys are the overwhelming majority of delinquents oAbout 75% of delinquent arrests o87% of incarcerated delinquents (2010) Boys outpace girls in almost every major crime category, but are especially more likely to commit violent crimes Male juveniles have committed murder at rate, ranging from about 9 to 18 times the rate of female delinquents over the last 30 years Boys have also been more than twice as likely to be homicide victims And when they grow up… o1,463,500 men in prison vs. 111,300 women In Search of an Explanation Biological explanations: something about the way boys/men are hardwired Sociological explanations: the way we raise/deal with boys in our society drives them to crime Sense of History KEY: males have historically made up the vast majority of delinquents and criminals oThis lends weight to biological explanations Yet, rates of participation in crime have varied over time, between social groups oThis lends weight to sociological explanations Putting It Together Pay attention to the particular social conditions males face in order to better understand potential pathways to criminal behavior Over the last few decades, two relevant trends: o Increase in single parent households boys more likely to “externalize” emotional problems o The loss of high-paying, low-skill manufacturing jobs o Girls outpacing boys at every educational level
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