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Chapter 7 Notes

by: Michela Spicer

Chapter 7 Notes CJ 270

Michela Spicer

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These notes cover all of the objectives and key terms of chapter 7 in the textbook.
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michela Spicer on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 270 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Corrections in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 10/09/16
Objectives 1. Explain the differences between the Pennsylvania and Auburn prison systems  The Pennsylvania and Auburn prison systeth emerged in the United States at the turn of the 19 century. The Pennsylvania system isolated prisoners from each other to avoid harmful influences and to give prisoners reflection time so they might repent. The Auburn system allowed inmates to work together during the day under strict silence. At night, however, prisoners were isolated in small sleeping cells. With time, sleeping cells became congregate and restrictions against talking were removed. 2. Outline the nine eras of prison development  Penitentiary era(1790-1825)  Mass prison era (1825-1876)  Reformatory era (1876-1890)  Industrial era (1890-1935)  Punitive era (1935-1945)  Treatment era (1945-1967)  Community-based era (1967-1980)  Warehousing era (1980-1995)  Just deserts era (1985-present) 3. Describe the characteristics of today’s prisoners and discuss reasons for the incarceration of women and minority prisoners  At yearend 2012, 1,353,198 people were under the jurisdiction of state correctional authorities, and 217,815 people were under the jurisdiction of the federal prison system. Of these state and federal inmates, 7% were female, 35% were white, 38% were black, and 21% were Hispanic. Reasons for the increase in women prisoners include women’s presence in the U.S. labor market, which has brought about increased opportunities for crime; the increased poverty of young, female, single heads of households, which means that more women are turning to crime to support themselves and their families; changes in the criminal justice system, which no longer affords women differential treatment; and the combined effects of harsh drug laws, changing patterns of drug use, and mandatory sentencing policies. Reasons for the increase in minority prisoners include an increase in serious criminal activity that results in incarceration; racial profiling and racism by the criminal justice system; and the prevalence of social conditions that exist in the nation’s inner cities, which is where most minorities in the United States regardless of race live, and the fact that large urban areas have the highest violence rates. 4. Explain prisoner classification and its purposes  Classification is the principal management tool for allocating scarce prison resources efficiently and minimizing the potential for escape or violence. The purpose is to assign inmates to appropriate prison housing and to help staff understand, treat, predict, and manage prisoner behavior. There are two types of classification, external and internal. External classification determines an inmate’s security level (maximum, close, medium, minimum, or community). Internal classification determines an inmate’s assignment to housing units or cellblocks, work, and programming based on the inmate’s risk, needs, and time to serve. 5. Discuss the arguments for and against faith-based correctional institutions  Today, state and federal prison systems are operating or developing faith-based and veterans-only housing units. Supporters of faith-based initiatives argue that such programs may reduce recidivism and improve other post release outcomes; are generally free or low cost because they are provided by volunteer groups; may improve in- prison behavior; lessen the dehumanization of incarceration; and are unlikely to harm anyone. Opponents argue that faith-based programs may not be effective; may actually cost taxpayers; promote a religious orientation and hence could be unconstitutional; may lessen offender accountability for their crimes; and may coerce some inmates into certain kinds of religious activity. Veterans- only facilities house and assist the growing number of war veterans who are incarcerated to address post-traumatic stress disorder, addiction, depression, and other common issues that may have influenced their offending behavior. To date, veterans-only and faith-based housing units are not evidence-based. 6. Explain what the evidence-based literature says about prison industries  The evidence-based literature on prison industries shows that the average prison industry program reduces the recidivism rate of participants by almost 6%. 7. Report on the availability of education and health care programs for prisoners  Among federal and state inmates, about 37% do not have a high school diploma or a GED compared to 19% of the general population. Only 283,000 inmates participate in educational programs. Evidence-based literature shows that corrections-based education programs are effective in reducing crime. Specifics about the nature and extent of recreation programming in prison and inmates’ participation in them is not known, but recreation and organized sports can make doing time easier, be used as an incentive, reduce tension, promote health, prevent disease, and reduce prison health care costs. In 1976, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Estelle v. Gamble that inmates have a constitutional right to reasonable, adequate health care for serious medical needs. However, the Court also made clear that such a right did not mean that prisoners have unqualified access to health care. 8. Compare state and federal prison organization and administration  All 50 states, the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP), and 4 local jurisdictions operate correctional institutions. State prison administration, a function of the executive branch of government, is most often organized around a central authority operating from the state capital. There are 3 levels of state prison security: maximum, for the most dangerous offenders serving long sentences; medium, for less dangerous offenders serving long or short sentences; and minimum, for the least dangerous offenders. 9. Discuss the question “Does incarceration work?”  Whether incarceration works depends on whom you ask and how he or she interprets the question. Politicians and researchers see the question differently. Governors and directors of corrections see the question straightforwardly: were it not for prison, there would be more crime. Researchers feel the question can be answered only with randomly designed experiments. There is no indication that we have come any closer to reaching consensus on the question of whether incarceration works. Key Terms  Penitentiary: the earliest form of large-scale incarceration. It punished criminals by isolating them so that they could reflect on their misdeeds, repent, and reform  Pennsylvania system (also separate system): the first historical phase of prison discipline, involving solitary confinement in silence instead of corporal punishment; conceived by the American Quakers in 1790 and implemented at the Walnut Street Jail  Auburn system: the second historical phase of prison discipline, implemented at New York’s Auburn prison in 1815. It followed the Pennsylvania system and allowed inmates to work silently together during the day, but they were isolated at night. Eventually sleeping cells because congregate and restrictions against talking were removed  Public accounts system: the earliest form of prison industry in which the warden was responsible for purchasing materials and equipment and for overseeing the manufacture, marketing, and sale of prison-made items  Contract system: a system of prison industry in which the prison advertised for bids for the employment of prisoners whose labor was sold to the highest bidder  Convict lease system: a system of prison industry in which a prison temporarily relinquished supervision of its prisoners to a lessee. The lessee either employed the prisoners within the institution or transported them to work elsewhere in the state  State use system: A system of prison industry that employs prisoners to manufacture products consumed by state governments and their agencies, departments, and institutions  Public works system: a system of prison industry in which prisoners were employed in the construction of public buildings, roads, and parks  Medical model: a philosophy of prisoner reform in which criminal behavior is regarded as a disease to be treated with appropriate therapy  Classification: the process of subdividing the inmate population into meaningful categories to match offender needs with correctional resources  External classification: Inter-institutional placement of an inmate that determines an inmate’s security level  Internal classification: intra-institutional placement that determines, through review of an inmate’s background, assignment to housing units or cellblocks, work, and programming based on the inmate’s risk, needs, and time to serve  Unit management system: a method of controlling prisoners in self-contained living areas and making inmates and staff (unit manager, correctional counselor, and unit secretary) accessible to each other  Federal Prison Industries (FPI): a federal, paid inmate work program and self-supporting corporation  UNICOR: the trade name of Federal Prison Industries. UNICOR provides such products as U.S. military uniforms, electronic cable assemblies, and modular furniture  Principle of least eligibility: the requirement that prison conditions- including the delivery of health care- must be a step below those of the working class and people on welfare  Operational capacity: the number of inmates that a facility’s staff, existing programs, and services can accommodate  Design capacity: the number of inmates that planners or architects intend for the facility  Justice reinvestment: the practice of reducing spending on prisons and investing a portion of the savings into infrastructure and civic institutions located in high-risk neighborhoods  Maximum- or close/high-security prison: a prison designed, organized, and staffed to confine the most dangerous offenders for long periods. It has a highly secure perimeter, barred cells, and a high staff-to-inmate ratio. It imposes strict controls on the movement of inmates and visitors, and it offers few programs, amenities, or privileges  Medium-security prison: a prison that confines offenders considered less dangerous than those in maximum security, for both short and long periods. It places fewer controls on inmates’ and visitors’ freedom of movement than does a maximum- security facility. It, too, has barred cells and a fortified perimeter. The staff-to-inmate ratio is generally lower than that in a maximum-security facility, and the level of amenities and privileges is slightly higher  Minimum-security prison: a prison that confines the least dangerous offenders for both short and long periods. It allows as much freedom of movement and as many privileges and amenities as are consistent with the goals of the facility. It may have dormitory housing, and the staff-to-inmate ratio is relatively low  Open institution: a minimum-security facility that has no fences or walls surrounding it


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