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BIOL 2312 Week 7 Notes

by: Sarah Westermann

BIOL 2312 Week 7 Notes BIOL 2312

Sarah Westermann

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About this Document

Finished covering the musculoskeletal system and began covering the digestive system.
BIOL 2312 Introduction to Modern Biology II
Dr. Mehmet Candas
Class Notes
Biology, Digestive System, Musculoskeletal System
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Westermann on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2312 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Mehmet Candas in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see BIOL 2312 Introduction to Modern Biology II in Biology at University of Texas at Dallas.


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Date Created: 10/09/16
October 4, 2016  Myosin (little dot) binding site for myosin head o Try to interact with any actin molecule o Presence of ATP (potential energy) is necessary o When ATP is cleaved (phosphate removed)  Broken bond releases energy  ADP and phosphate are products  Myosin changes shape (creates kinetic energy; physically moves protein molecule)  Back to start (must be reset with ATP otherwise it will be stuck on the same actin) o Cycle must be restarted  1st level of regulation is ATP o Available in muscles all the time o But your muscles are not always contracting  2nd level of regulation: troponin and tropomyosin o Troponin  Controls and is controlled by tropomyosin  Gets Ca2+ molecule signals to get tropomyosin out of the way o Tropomyosin  Gets in the way of actin binding site  Physical barrier  As long as there is ATP, muscles are always in states 1 & 2  3rd level of regulation: control Ca2+ o Comes from motor neuron junction o Neurotransmitter ACh released from motor neuron => ACh binds to receptor => ligand-gated channel opens => Na depolarizes => travels through plasma membrane (t-tubules) that run down in muscle => go to sarcoplasmic reticulum (job is to hold stores of Ca2+) => activated when cell depolarizes o Opportunities to mess up at every step  When a someone dies, there is no more ATP (locked in last crossbridge the ever made - rigor mortis)  Bridge Cycle will stop when o Muscles run out of ATP o Tropomyosin covers actin binding site  Force o When sarcomere is contracting we don’t want it to be all the way out (few cross- bridges) or all the way in o Recruit more motor units when picking up something heavy  Don’t innervate entire muscle fiber, supposed to be interplay of different states  Cramps: when the entire muscle completely contracts o Don’t need a whole lot of force to pick up a pencil  Use more motor units when picking up a bowling ball than picking up a pencil o Muscles work in pairs  Biceps (flexion) and triceps (extension)  Biceps  Turn off Ca2+ for triceps, turn Ca2+ on for bicep  Triceps  Pulls - tricep is engaged, bicep is relaxed o Ca2+ in tricep o Work out - create muscle growth o Ultimate goal is to increase force o Tetanus - fluid, controlled muscle contraction  Doesn’t start out this way  Start with twitch  Twitch  Single impulse hitting motor unit (ex: eye twitch)  Need a series of these twitches over and over (summation)  Summation becomes tetanus  Training outputs in cortex  Parkinson’s  Intermittent stimuli leads to tremors  ACh released when it shouldn’t be o Collections of slow and fast-twitch fibers  Gives us dexterity and response time  Fast-twitch  Found in eyes o Eyes get tired; not for long-term use o Light yellow in color o Turkey - white meat  Slow-twitch  Found in thighs, back, and core o Work all day  Limitless O2 supply o (myoglobin)  ATP synthesis  O2 stored in (vertebrate) skeletal muscles  Dark red in color o Mitochondria, myoglobin  Turkey - dark meat o More flavor due to presence of myoglobin  Many muscles are combinations of fast and slow twitches  Skeletal System o 3 types  Hydrostatic  Hydro - water  Soft-bodied organisms  Move with shape of water can change change shape of organism  Very flexible  Motor response - very basic  2 sets of muscle o Longitudinal  Run the height of organism o Circular  Wrap around the organism o Same design as human digestive tract  Earthworm locomotion o Has “feet” (chaetae) o Allow earthworm to anchor itself for movement of circular and longitudinal muscles  Exoskeletons  On the outside  Loses effectiveness in growth/size  Very strong relative to size  Muscles pull on exoskeleton  Made of chitin  Helps protect organs  Juvenile hormone and ecdysone present during molting  Limit on muscles and breathing o Breathing limit occurs before muscle limit o Limited by space  Endoskeletons  Vertebrates  Centralized skeleton  Echinoderms - sand dollars/ starfish o Endoskeletons consist of calcium carbonate (harder)  Bone o Made of calcium phosphate/ stronger than cartilage  Cartilage cushion  Different types of bone o Flat bone o Long bone o Short bone o Irregular bone o Sesamoid bone - patella  206 bones in human body (give or take number of sesamoid bones) October 6, 2016  Bone tissue development o Mesenchymal stem cells  Collection of cells that have a lot of potential  Can be in any of the 3 germ layers  Mesenchymal cells can become:  Osteocyte, chondrocyte, muscle fiber, fibroblasts, or stromal cells  Bone o Hard, connective tissue o 2 Modes of Development  Intramembranous  Starts in the middle; use connective tissues as guidelines  Typically see this sort of development in flat bones o Not a lot of growth (elongation)  Endochondral  Where growth and height comes in  As long as GH is present, bones will continue to elongate o Osteoblasts become osteocytes by entombing (surrounding) themselves in the matrix  Reside in lacunae (not isolated) need to communicate  Use canals in bone for communication o Ossification centers first found in middle of bone - helps calcify cartilage  3 different ossification points (1 in the center and 1 at each end of the bone)  Continues to build outward - helps elongate the bone (growth plates) o At some point growth stops  When growth stops, ossification of bone is able to catch-up o Osteoblasts - can become osteocytes o Osteoclasts - break down bone (PTH) o Bones aren’t completely solid because otherwise they would be too heavy for movement  Impacts are taken better when the shock can be absorbed o Bones have catalyzed communication tunnel - communicate from inside to outside o Periosteum  Tough outer covering for the bone  Tendons and ligaments attach to this part o Cartilage cells make cartilage in one direction - away from the center of the bone  Will continue as long as GH tells it to o Birds  Very light bones (avascular) o FIsh  Bones splinter very easily (avascular)  Bones don’t heal when they’re broken  Increase buoyancy o Bone Structure  Compact  Outer cover  Medullary  Internal cavity  Spongy  Dominantly found in epiphyses  Bone marrow o Blood production; WBC production o Osteoblasts come from here o Bone Remodeling  Bone may thicken/ increases bone mass  Large, frequent forces can change shape of bones  Positive feedback  Bone can thicken and remodel itself back to original condition  Osteoporosis  Loss of balance in bone remodeling  Try to stop bone loss - shut down osteoclasts; drug makers  Fibroblasts  Can generate sesamoid bones  Joints (4 patterns)  Ball and socket o All directions  Hinge o Strength  Gliding o Spine  Combination o Jaw  Digestive System o Food Processing  Ingestion  Digestion  Absorption  Elimination o Digestion classes  Autotrophs  Organisms that make their own food  Use inorganic compounds  Producers of our ecosystem  Example: plants, bacteria  Heterotrophs  Eat other things  Consumers of ecosystem  3 Categories o Herbivores  Eat plants o Carnivores  Eat other animals o Omnivores  Eat both plants and animals o Nutrients  Can be organic or inorganic  Required for all basic functions  Nutrients as nutrition  Deficiencies lead to disease  Organic Nutrients  Carbs o Rich source of sugar o Provide energy o Efficiency o Body doesn’t want to make its own sugars if it can get it from food sources  Proteins o Harder to break down  Lipids o Lots of calories o Heavy foods  Nucleic Acids o Need to be able to build sugar rings  Essential Nutrients  Vitamins o Tend to be coenzymes; help enzymes function properly o 2 Classes  Water-soluble  Must be consumed readily  No storage system for them  Fat-soluble  Stored in fat  Vitamin A,D,E,K o More critical - must be stored o Can overdose on these  Amino Acids o (memorize the 9 amino acids)  PVT TIM HLL o Body doesn’t make these  Must get these from food  Long-Chain Unsaturated Fatty Acids o Essential Fatty Acids  Saturated  Huge amounts of energy  Example: butter  Unsaturated  Can take on more Hydrogen to become saturated  Liquid at room temperature  Examples: olive oil, canola oil  Has chemical potential  Minerals o Only need small amounts of essential minerals o Deficiencies of these are bad o Types of Digestive System  Intracellular  Digested inside cell  No mechanism for storage  Mus eat when they see it - don’t get very big  Extracellular  Found in vertebrates  Digestive cavity (tube w/in a tube)  Cnidarians and flatworms o Only 1 opening (1 way in and out) o Simplest extracellular system  Earthworms o 2 separate opening o Allows for specialized regions; increases efficiency


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