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Biology 1081 Week 6 Lecture Notes

by: Lindsey Marquez

Biology 1081 Week 6 Lecture Notes Bio 1081

Marketplace > University of Cincinnati Clermont College > Science > Bio 1081 > Biology 1081 Week 6 Lecture Notes
Lindsey Marquez


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Usually there will be three lectures per week, however we had Wednesday off. These notes cover wordstems mentioned in class as well as diagrams Dr. Fankhauser has drawn on the board. NOTE: These no...
Majors Biology 1
Dr. Fankhauser
Class Notes
Biology, Science
25 ?




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Marquez on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1081 at University of Cincinnati Clermont College taught by Dr. Fankhauser in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Majors Biology 1 in Science at University of Cincinnati Clermont College.


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Date Created: 10/09/16
(9/26/2016) Words stems  Vita – life  Ine – Nitrogen containing  Anima – Souls  Turbid – Confused, Cloudy  Micro – Tiny  Scope – Examine  Anima – Soul  Cules – Little  Sperm – Seed  Bacter – Rod Comparing Vitalist and Mechanists Two Schools Matter Natural Laws Origin Effect of Heat Spontaneous of Thought Generation Vitalist That organic Living organisms You cannot turn Organic = Cooks matter is have anima and inorganic matter or charrs qualitatively follow a to form organic No different than different set of matter, that life Inorganic = inorganic laws, then non- is from divine Melts living beings origin Mechanists That all matter is composed of All laws of Organic is the same nature apply to interchangeable N/A Yes materials and all matter with inorganic, follows the life can arise same spontaneously composition and rules Spontaneous Generation Scientists Name Experiment What They Proved Redi He sealed a jar with raw meat That maggots do not and no maggots formed, later he spontaneously generate on raw did the same experiment with a meat. thin cloth so the “anima” could get into the jar, no maggots formed. Needham He boiled beef broth, strained He believed that he proved the and sealed in “clean” flasks he spontaneous generation of left it incubate and it became bacteria. turbid. Spaillanizani Hypothesized that Needham’s That bacteria do not experiment got contaminated spontaneously generate and he revised it by boiling the beef broth in a sealed flask, it never got turbid, vitalists complained about “anima” Lamarck He studied swamps, he noticed It was never tested the gelatinous material and he thought that when it was struck by lightning, life would spontaneously arise, he called this an “orgasme” Van Helminot He hypothesized that mice Mice were found in the barrel spontaneously generate in barns and he posted a paper on how to so he tested this by putting corn spontaneously generated mice. and soiled clothing in a barrel in the dark corner. Louie Paster He hypothesized that bacteria is This disproves spontaneous carried by dust, he tested this by generation. designing a swan neck flask that has a dust trap, but an open top He claims to “Have disproven so “anima” can get in, he boiled spontaneous generation once broth in the flask and it never and for all” turned turbid, to prove that it was still good he cracked the neck off and not long after the broth had turned turbid. Wohler Took ammonium cyanite and Turned an inorganic compound added heat, this created urea. into an organic one. Leeuwenhoek Was credited with the invention Discovered bacteria of the microscope, looked at many things under the He called them Animacules microscope including peppercorn and fabric. Hook Looked at cork through the Named them “cells” microscope. What is Turbidity? The measure of concentration of bacteria. Is there an easy as to where life came from? No What is the cell theory? The theory that every living thing on the earth is composed of cells. Lecture 2 (9/30/2016) Word Stems  Glyc – Sugar or Sweet  Kera – Horn  Hemo – Blood  Glob – Sphere  In – Agent  Exo – Outside  Endo – Inside  Thermic – Heat  Holo – Entire  Apo – Detact  Prothesis – Stands in front  Ine – Nitrogen containing  Thiol – Sulfer Hydryl  Dyna – Change or Force Which scientists are Vitalist or Mechanist? Vitalist Mechanist Redi Needham Spallanzani Lamark Paster Wohler What is the most important aspect of proteins? Enzymes How many levels of protein structure are there? 4 Protein Structure Number Name What it is Example 1° Primary Linear Sequence of Basic Amino Acid Amino Acids 2° Secondary Peptide Bond Alpha Helix Interaction Beta Pleated Sheet 3° Tertiary Side Chain Interaction Disulfide bridge 4° Quaternary Self-Assembly Hemoglobin placed in water What creates the shapes of alpha helix and beta pleated sheet, and what level of protein structure is this? Peptide bond interaction and secondary protein structure. What happens once amino acids are placed in water? Self-Assembly What affects how the amino acids fold once placed in water? Side Chains Which bonds are the strongest found in science? Covalent Bonds Who discovered the alpha helix? Linus Palling Generic Amino Acid (Un-Ionized with labeled functional groups) Ionization of an Amino Acid Glycine Cysteine Aspartic Acid Lysine What bond does Thiol (Cysteine) oxidize into? Disulfer Bond What type of bond is it (Disulfer bond)? Covalent Bond What are the steps to create a permanent wave? 1) Reduction, let it set. 2) Oxidation, let it set. What happens when you get a permanent wave What is reduction? Reduction is a gain of an electron or hydrogen What is oxidation? Oxidation is a loss of an electron What is the two-word definition of enzyme? Protein catalyst What does lead do to a disulfer bridge? Destroys it Why is lead so harmful in the body? It denatures enzymes, by changing their shape Name other poisonous metals that have negative effects on the body. Mercury, cadmium, arsenic denature enzymes. What are the polymers that make up lactose? Galactose and glucose What kinds of sugar is lactose? Disaccharide What type of sugar is glucose and galactose? Monosaccharide(s) Which type of sugar is the only one that can be absorbed in the human body? Monosaccharide What enzyme breaks up lactose? Lactase Basic Thermodynamic Chart Which type of thermodynamic reaction absorbs heat? Endothermic What type of thermodynamic reaction gives off heat? Exothermic What is activation energy? The amount of energy given to start a reaction How do catalysts affect a reaction? They lower the activation energy Why are catalysts perfectly configured in shape? In order to break apart proteins and speed up their reaction. Generic Structure of an Enzyme What is the rate of substrate saturation? The enzyme can only work so fast; thus the rate will level out no matter how saturated the substrate is. Rate of Substrate Saturation


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