New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

BIO 199 Week 6 Notes

by: Tiffany Matyja

BIO 199 Week 6 Notes BIO 199

Marketplace > University of Tampa > BIO > BIO 199 > BIO 199 Week 6 Notes
Tiffany Matyja
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Here are the notes from this week's lecture
General Biology II
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in General Biology II

Popular in BIO

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiffany Matyja on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 199 at University of Tampa taught by Huber in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in BIO at University of Tampa.


Reviews for BIO 199 Week 6 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/09/16
Sunday, October 9, 2016 Chapters 30-32 BIO 199 - Chapter 30: Seedless Plants • The Greening of Earth - the terrestrial surface of Earth was lifeless for the first 4 billion years of Earth’s history - land plants now represent nearly 300,000 species - plants provide ecosystem services • provide habitat, nutrition, oxygen • act as a carbon dioxide sink (they pull carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere) • Plant Evolution - characteristics are derived form the primary endosymbiosis of cyanobacteria - land plants share a common ancestor with green algae • evidenced by chloroplast structure, pigments and products, and cellulose - derived traits of plants • alternation of generations: necessary so spores can be produced. Spores are more durable and served as “the foot in the door” for the colonization of land • reproductive organs - sporophyte: sporangia, which produce spores - gametophyte: gametongia, which produce gametes - antheridia: male reproductive organs - archegonia: female reproductive organs • multicellular, dependent embryos - sperm travels to female gametophyte for fertilization - the embryo is protected and nourished by the parent generation 1 Sunday, October 9, 2016 • apical meristems - meristem: a localized area of rapid cell division - plants al possess a shoot (top) and a root (bottom) meristem for vertical growth • mycorrhizae: fungal filaments that live in symbiotic association with plant root cells, which they help to absorb inorganic nutrients from soil • Plant Diversity - Bryophytes: non-vascular plants • gametophyte-dominant life cycle • form ground-hugging carpets of vegetation due to the lack of vascular tissue • require wet environments because they lack vascular tissue and the sperm must swim to the egg - Tracheophytes: vascular plants, which may or may not produce seeds • morphology - vascular tissue • xylem:transports water and nutrients up from soil; made from cells called tracheids • phloem: transports photosynthetic sugars down from the top of the plant - vascular tissue enables vertical growth, which is the principle way plants compete with each other • leads to the evolution of roots, stems, and leaves • increase in the quantity of plants and the effectiveness with which they remove carbon dioxide form the atmosphere - initially triggered a period of global cooling - sporophyte dominant life cycle - water requirements • seedless terms: require wet habits because the sperm must still swim to the egg 2 Sunday, October 9, 2016 • seed plants the evolution of pollen eliminates water from the reproductive cycle - growing vertically requires structural support • vertical growth (primary growth) is achieved via apical meristems • lateral growth (secondary growth) is achieved via lateral meristems, which produce wood - secondary xylem and phloem are converted into wood with lignin - Chapter 31: Seed Plants • Plant Evolution - Gymnosperms • the megaspore grows into the female gametophyte which produces an egg and a food supply for the future embryo - microspores (pollen grains) are transferred to the female plant via pollination, after which they germinate to produce the male gametophyte • the male gametophyte produces the pollen tube and sperm - fertilization leads to the formation of a seed, which includes the sporophyte embryo, the food supply, and the seed coat from the parent sporophyte • Angiosperms - flowering plants are highly adapted for sexual reproduction and for relationships with animals that facilitate sexual reproductions - flower structure sepals: protect the developing flower bud • • petals: attract pollinators • stamen: male reproductive structures • carpels: female reproductive structures - flowers develop into fruits following fertilization • fruit: a ripened ovary that contains seeds - coevolution: when organisms evolve with respect to each others’ traits 3 Sunday, October 9, 2016 • a defining feature of the relationship between angiosperms and animals - relationships with animals for seed dispersal • flower color - white flowers are very fragrant and are pollinated by nocturnal animals - red flowers are pollinated by birds - blue/purple flowers are pollinated by insects, which also rely on UV coloration • flower morphology - nectaries: “true petals” an incentive for birds and insects to pollinate - coevolution occurs when the flower shape reflects its pollinator - angiosperms are capable of double fertilization • double fertilization: fertilization of the egg by one sperm cell and fusion of the other sperm cell to the female gametophyte to trigger the formation of the endosperm (the food supply for a developing embryo) - a food supply is not produced if the egg is not fertilized • gymnosperms produce food supply regardless of fertilization. This is energy wasted - Habitat Fragmentation • has massive effects on biodiversity • increase in population density in remaining habitat due to the displacement of organisms from their habitats • increased competition and energy expenditure • increased spread of disease - Chapter 32: Fungi • fungi are diverse, widespread, and essential for the well-being of most ecosystems • there are ~100,000 known species • heterotrophic 4 Sunday, October 9, 2016 • nutrient-cycling - anatomy • fungi are composed of a filamentous body called a mycelium - mycelium: made up of filaments called hyphae - hyphae: composed of cells with walls made out of chitin • hyphae can be septate or coenocytic - both arrangements facilitate fluid flow through hyphae, allowing for rapid growth - fungal life cycle • only group of organisms to produce spores during both sexual and asexual reproduction • sexual reproduction: all non fungi have plasmogamy (fusion of cytoplasm) immediately followed by karyogamy (fusion of nuclei) during sex - fungi have an intermedia dikaryotic stage, during which reproductive structures like mushrooms are rapidly produced to facilitate the dispersal of offspring • asexual reproduction - molds: asexual reproduction in multicellular fungi - yeasts: unicellular fungi that reproduce asexually via budding • Fungal Evolution - Supergroup Opisthokonta • Chytridiomycota - represents ancestral condition for Supergroup Opisthokonta - causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, a fungal infection responsible for the extinction of numerous amphibian species • Zygomycota - sexual reproduction: produce a zygosporangia - asexual reproduction: molds 5 Sunday, October 9, 2016 • Glomeromycota - form arbuscular mycorrhizae to aid plant cells with nutrient acquisition • Basidiomycota - rely almost completely on sexual reproduction • produce a basidiocarp (mushroom), lined with club-shaped cells called basidia, which produce basidiospores • Ascomycota - unicellular years, multicellular “cup” fungi • sexual reproduction: produce an ascocarp (cup), lined with column-shaped cells called asci, which produce ascospores • asexual reproduction: produce conidia • Fungi have a powerful impact on ecosystems and human welfare - decomposers - symbiotic relationships - pathogens - antibiotics 6


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.