Uconn MCB 2400 week 6
Uconn MCB 2400 week 6 2400
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by linchen.deng Notetaker on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2400 at University of Connecticut taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Human Genetics in MCB at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
MCB 2400 Week 6 Only 1.5% of the human genome encodes proteins Pseudogenes are very similar to regular genes but are not translated Transposon (jump genes) Ex: Alu element most common in primates junk DNA Reverse transcriptase make dsDNA from RNA transcript dsDNA are inserted into the genome Viral DNA retroviral sequences cpmprise 8% of genome Virus transcriptase copies viral RNA to DNA Integrase inserts viral DNA into chromosome If a viral germ cell is passed on to offspring, it causes problems Oncotype DX microarray is used to determine whether and how much a gene has been turned on. Harvest mRNA from cancer cells and normal cells cDNA are made from reverse transcription( cancer cells and normal cells are labeled differently It shows levels of gene expression changes gene expression The moth example--- some mutations lead to adaptability Somatic mutation occurs in pre-mitotic cells Germline mutation would pass to next generation Base substitution is also called point mutation, only one codon is changed Silent (same sense): change of codon does not change corresponding amino acid Missense: the resulting amino acid will change the chemical property of the compound o Sickle cell anemia: Resulting hydrophobic valine tend to clump together. Normal red blood cells have hydrophilic glutamic acid o A truncating mutation in human makes them larger brain Nonsense: point mutation causes an earlier stop codon, resulting in shorter polypeptide chain. Base insertion or deletion changes the reading frame and changes many codons When 5’ A is removed at the start codon AUG, tRNAs will skip that start codon and find another one downstream. Removing of 3 bases between codons does not change other codons since one codon is removed Insertion or deletion of bases within a codon and bases of three- multiples between two codons will cause severe frameshift of the transcript Transition: Purine to purine or pyrimidine to pyrimidine--4 possibilities Transversion: purine to pyrimidine and vice versa (8 possibilities)