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Psych Notes

by: Hana Liebman

Psych Notes PSYC 202

Hana Liebman
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About this Document

Notes taken in class on Thursday, 9/29.
Intro to Psychology as a Social Science
Constance Pilkington
Class Notes
Psychology, Freud




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hana Liebman on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 202 at The College of William & Mary taught by Constance Pilkington in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 321 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology as a Social Science in Psychology at The College of William & Mary.


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Date Created: 10/09/16
Psychology202 with ProfessorPilkington Notes for Exam II Personality Definitions  Definition: pattern of characteristic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that distinguishes one person from another and that persists through time o Stable, consistent, and unique  Variations in evolved characteristics, both psychological and behavioral, are unique and separate us from other species o Traits: enduring attributes shared by a group of people o Unique set of goals, beliefs, social roles, and self-concept Psychodynamic (aka Psychoanalytic) Theory  Freud’s time: post World War II Vienna o Remnants of Victorian culture o Trained in human physiology but became a doctor of nervous disorders  Theory development o Worked with colleague Breuer o The talking cure o Anna O.: patient with hysteria, a medical problem with no biological cure  Freud determined that she had childhood trauma that was kept in her unconscious that troubled her  Three levels of consciousness o Conscious mind: part of mind that is actively/currently thinking and perceiving o Preconscious mind: great storehouse of information that can be brought into the conscious mind o Unconscious mind: storehouse of primitive, instinctual motives/desires and of traumatic memories  Contents are largely inaccessible  Structure of personality o Id: inborn part of unconscious mind  Two instincts  Eros: life instincts (hunger, thirst, sex drive, etc.)  Thanatos: desire to return to state of non-being that existed before birth  Psychological energy: libido  Operates according to the pleasure principle, which demands instant gratification  Out of touch with reality o Ego: exists at all 3 levels of consciousness  Develops after birth when child realizes that things aren’t automatic  Operates according to the reality principle, which holds self in check until a reasonable/realistic time occurs to satisfy the id’s desires  Executive of personality o Superego: also exists at all 3 levels of consciousness  Is moral and strives for ideal perfection  Develops through introjection, which are the internalized rules of parents and other adults  Two parts  Conscience: moral inhibitions against bad actions that are learned through punishment (should not’s)  Ego ideal: standards for goodness and perfection (should’s)  Dynamics of personality o Anxiety: result of conflict between parts of personality o Three types  Neurotic: fear that instincts will get out of control (id threatens to overwhelm the ego)  Moral: high levels of guilt and intense punishment for minor sins (superego dominates the ego)  Objective: ego realizes a threat or danger in the real world o Noxious: motivated to reduce anxiety and its stress o Defense mechanisms: strategies designed to manage anxiety without conscious action (yet some anxiety does remain and influences behavior)  Repression: forcing uncomfortable thoughts into unconscious mind (we are not aware of this process)  Denial/suppression: intentionally/consciously repressing thoughts  Regression: returning to an earlier, more childish coping method  Rationalization: explaining something (behavior, results) away  Reaction formation: turning an unconscious and anxiety-provoking impulse into its opposite  Adams and colleagues studied homophobic and non-homophobic men’s response to gay, lesbian, and heterosexual porn and measured arousal  The homophobic men were generally more aroused by the gay porn than non-homophobic men  Displacement: managing aggressive impulses by directing them toward a substitute  Sublimation: directing libido to socially acceptable or constructive actions  Projection: seeing one’s own undesirable qualities in another person  Psychosexual development o Personality develops in 5 stages and depends on part of the body where libido is focused  Oral stage (birth to 1 yr.): gratification sought through the mouth (sucking, chewing, biting)  Oral receptive personality: still derives pleasure from sucking and swallowing (smoking, over-eating) and tend to be gullible (swallow ideas easily)  Oral aggressive personality: biting sarcasm  Anal stage (1-3 yrs.): deals with the immediate release of feces or the delayed release that comes with a reward  Anal retentive personality: stingy, obstinate, and compulsive  Anal expulsive personality: cruel, messy, and disorderly  Phallic stage (3-6 yrs.): children become fascinated with genitals and the opposite sex  Boys: Oedipal complex (they want to have sex with their mothers and kill their fathers), which results in castration anxiety  Boys then learn to identify with their fathers and imitate them, thus developing a more masculine personality  Girls: Electra complex (they are upset that they don’t have a penis and, believing they’ve been castrated, blame their mothers)  Girls develop penis envy and transfer their love to their fathers  Penis envy fades with time, and girls become more like their mothers in order to become more pleasing to men  Freud believes homosexuality can develop if there’s no father figure for boys to imitate  Moral development (superego): Freud implies that women are morally weaker than men because they didn’t have a driving fear (castration anxiety) that motivated them to adapt  Latency (6 yrs.-puberty): libido energy is sublimated into a mastery of the world  Genital stage (puberty +): renewed interest in genitals; interest in developing heterosexual relationships and having children (expression of eros)  Evaluating Freud’s theory o It’s difficult or nearly impossible to empirically test many aspects of his theory (his theory is not falsifiable) o Research is generally NOT supportive o Yet Freud made a huge contribution to the discipline of psychology  He’s one of the earliest psychologists who thought about the unconscious and about developmental issues  He’s been a major influence on Western thought and ideas


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