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PSY Week 7 Memory

by: merlec16

PSY Week 7 Memory PSY 151


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About this Document

Notes taken from the textbook on chapter 8 Memory. p. 371-412
Intro to Psychology
Dr. Schrillo
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology, memory
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by merlec16 on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 151 at Wake Forest University taught by Dr. Schrillo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Wake Forest University.


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Date Created: 10/09/16
Ch. 8 Memories Part 1 p. 371-411 Learning Goals What is Memory and the processes involved?  Misattribution- recalling as a personal memory something that actually originated elsewhere  Memory- two different ways to define memory/ the ability to retain information about past personal experiences or facts about the world o Cognitive perspective- memory involves the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information o Information-processing perspective- Neuroscientists- more likely to define memory as learning-induced changes in the activity of neurons o Encoding- memory process of “translating” sensory impressions into meaningful perceptions that may then be stored as memory o Storage- the memory process whereby meaningful perceptions are retained as memory o Retrieval- recognizing or recalling something from long-term memory  Modal model of memory- traditional model of memory that views memory as consisting of three stages  What are three types of memory? o Sensory- new information reaches here first, very briefly stores large amounts of fleeting sensory impressions  Compromised of iconic store (visual) and echoic store (auditory)  At the most basic level it “collects” sensory info and briefly holds it  Allows us to perceive the world as a continuous stream of events  Iconic memory-  Echoic memory- o Short Term- (STM) used for attending to information in the short term  Limited in the length of time the memory can remain active (20sec)  Limited in the amount of info that can be stored (4-5 items)  Any time you pay attention to a sight, sound, feeling, idea or piece of info  Maintenance rehearsal- actively repeating or thinking about information so that it remains in STM  Memory span- limited capacity, four or 5 chunks of information  Chunk- individual items that are grouped together in memory because they are meaningfully associated with one another  Encoding is primarily acoustic, secondarily visual, much less often semantic  Memory span: 7 plus or minus 2  Baddeley Working Memory Model  Several distinct mechanisms:  Capacity  Rehearsal strategies o Long term- deepest level of encoding information- theoretically limited memory store that contains memories for facts, autobiographical events, and learned skills  Represents data stored in files for later retrieval  Encoding is primarily semantic  Types of memory  Storing information  Forgetting  Amnesia o Capacity and Storage of each What are the types of LTM?  Acoustic- encoding according to the sound of the stimulus being encoded o Visual- encoding according to the visual appearance of the stimulus  Visual- encoding according to the visual appearance of the stimulus  Semantic- encoding according to the meaning of the stimulus o Considered a deeper level of processing  Explicit memories- (declarative memory) conscious memories for personal experiences (episodic memory) or facts about the world (semantic memory) o Episodic- memories acquired through personal experience o Semantic- memory for facts one has learned, as opposed to person experiences  Implicit memories- memory that affects how we behave without our conscious awareness of the memory itself o Procedural- implicit memory for skills involving motor coordination (driving a car) o Repetition priming- when performance on a task improves as a result of previous implicit exposure  Elaborative rehearsal- mentally encoding information into LTM in a way that is personally meaningful and associates the new information with information that already exists in LTM  Memories are CONSTRUCTED not “recorded”  Better to encode LTM with semantics o Need to elaborate on info to better encode  Ways to promote elaboration: 1. Think about meaning 2. Notice and notice 3. Form mental pictures a. Forces you to think about details 4. Space repetitions a. Distributed practice 5. Test yourself! 6. Consider sequence position a. Memory for items in a list is best for those at the beginning (primacy) and end (recency) 7. Mnemonic techniques Mnemonic Techniques  Mental tricks that help people think about material in ways that improve memory o Most depend on visual imagery  Method of Loci o Acronyms:  Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally Recovering Info from LTM The Importance of Retrieval Cues  Recognition vs. Recall o MC (recognition) vs. Essay test (recall- produce something from LTM entirely on your own) o Better performance?  Context Dependent Memory- when retrieval of a memory is enhanced in contexts that were similar to the one that existed when the memory was encoded  State Dependent Memory- when retrieval of a memory is enhanced by internal states such as moos or drug effects that were present when the memory was encoded  Flashbulb memories- a highly vivid and detailed remembrance of one’s personal circumstances at the moment of learning of some shocking and unexpected event o Vivid; Types of Remembering  Implicit Memory recall o Remembering without willful intent o Vocabulary in everyday conversation o Procedural  HM has these  Explicit Memory recall o Willful remembering o Vocabulary test Updating Memory: Learning Goals Describe mechanisms that cause forgetting:  Decay: o However: can’t explain why “forgotten” memories can be retrieved with the right cues  Retroactive interference-  Proactive interference- when an old memory interferes with the retrieval of a new memory  Retrograde amnesia- often a temporary result of injury o Damage to Right Prefrontal cortex  Can’t retrieve info for events before damage  Anterograde amnesia- tends to be permanent o Implicit memory may be spared o Damage to Left Prefrontal Cortex  Damage in encoding – remembering new things  Where are memories stored? o Hippocampus o All brain structures  Amygdala- emotions  Visual system when visually imagining something o Dementia- problems with memory and other cognitive functions  Alzheimer’s Disease


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