Cultural Anthropology Chapter 5 Notes
Cultural Anthropology Chapter 5 Notes ANT2410
Popular in Cultural Anthropology
Popular in Cultural Anthropology
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maria Valencia on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT2410 at University of South Florida taught by Dr. Melina Taylor in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in Cultural Anthropology at University of South Florida.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Cultural Anthropology ANT2410.002F16 Chapter 5 Highlight = Important Person Highlight = Key Concept Highlight = Key Term Race: A ﬂawed system of classiﬁcation with no biological basis, that uses certain physical characteristics to divide the human population into supposedly discrete groups. Racism: Individual thought and actions and institutional patterns and policies that create unequal access to power, privilege, resources and opportunities based on imagined difference among groups. Do Biologically Separate Races Exist? • Enculturated to believe that “race” refers to distinct physical characteristics that mark individuals as clearly belonging in one group and not another -Contemporary studies of human genetics show no biologically distinct human groups. Fuzzy Boundaries In a Well-Integrated Gene Pool • Over the last 200,000 years of modern human history, we have functioned as large interconnected gene pool, swapping genetic material back and forth. Interconnecting family trees over and over again. - Such deep integration of human gene pool means no clear and absolute genetic lines can be drawn to separate people into distinct, biologically discrete “racial” pop. Fun Fact: Genetic variations such as skin color, are only 0.1% of that persons genetic code; they do not predict anything else about the persons genetic makeup. The Wild Goose Chase: Linking Phenotype to Genotype Genotype: The inherited genetic factors that provide the framework for an organisms physical form. Phenotype: The way genes are expressed in an organisms physical form as a result of genotype interaction with environmental factors. -We assume that on the basis of phenotype alone we know whether a person is fast, smart, strong, safe or dangerous, etc. Ex: “Asians are better at math” How Is Race Constructed around the World? Race and the Legacy of Colonialism • Contemporary global expressions of race are deeply rooted in systems of classiﬁcation that western Europeans created as expanded their colonial empires. Colonialism: The practice by which a nation-state extends political, economic, and military power beyond its own borders over an extended period of time to secure access to raw materials, cheap labor, and markets in other countries or regions. Classiﬁcation people based on phenotype became framework for creating hierarchy of races • with Europeans at the top; making assumptions about intelligence and eventually justifying conquests. Race, Class, and gender, and Hundreds of Races in Brazil • The USA and Brazil are the two largest multiracial countries in Western hemisphere. • Brazil has much more variety of terms describing races compared to that of USA. • Brazils pop of Europeans, Africans and indigenous people long history of interracial mixing. Miscegenation: A demeaning historical term for interracial marriage • Hypodescent (“one from of blood” rule) that in US meant having even one black ancestry out of many could mark an individual as black. Race closely intersected with class including land ownership, wealth and education in • determining social class. • Basil referred to as a “racial democracy” but later abolished the use of racial categories. How Is Race Constructed in the United States? Race and the U.S. Census • Changing conception of race since its ﬁrst census in 1790 growing from 3 categories to 14 in 2010 show that race is still an evolving human construction. History of U.S. Racial Categories: Constructing Whiteness • U.S. racial system developed in midst of slavery and European conquest of indigenous people in North America. White Supremacy: The belief that whites are biologically different from and superior to people of other races Whiteness: A culturally constructed concept originating in 1691 Virginia designed to establish clear boundaries of who is white and who is not, a process central to the formation of U.S racial stratiﬁcation. • Colonial laws established sharp boundaries of who was white and who was not. Intermarriage was outlawed. Mixing was punished by loss of white status. Jim Crow: Laws implemented after the U.S. Civil War to legally enforce segregation, particularly in the South, after the end of slavery. The Rule of Hypodescent Hypodescent: Sometimes called the “one drop of blood rule”; the assignment of children of racially “mixed” unions to the subordinate group. • Hypodescent rules were enshrined in the laws of many U.S. states and backed by the U.S. Supreme Court. -No longer enforced by law but still widely practiced in US culture. Race and Immigration • What race were the new immigrants coming from Asia, eastern and southern Europe? Nativism: The favoring of certain long-term inhabitants over new immigrants. Eugenics: A pseudoscience attempting to scientiﬁcally prove the existence of separate human races to improve the populations genetic composition by favoring some races over others. Chinese, Irish and other Immigrants: What Race? • Chinese came in large numbers ﬁrst in the 1850s to work in California’s gold mines, farms and railroad construction. -Unsure of what to call them, they were branded Yellow Peril——> a race that could not be trusted. • Today [Irish, Italian and eastern European] considered white but before received discrimination bc no Anglo-Saxon Protestants. -Increasing numbers, intermarriage with whites and upward class mobility created conditions of inclusion in the white category. Middle Easterners • What are they? Are they “white,” African American or Asian? -Shift characterization esp after 9/11 attacks • Maria Kromidas shows how even 9 year olds relate to issues of race and religion after 9/11 attacks taking mental notes of the differences in who they are. Racialization: The process of categorizing, differentiating, and attributing a particular racial character to a person or group of people. What is Racism? Types of Racism Individual Racism Individual Racism: Personal prejudiced beliefs and discriminatory actions based on race. • Prejudice involves making negative assumptions about a persons abilities or intentions based on persons perceived race and discriminating involves taking negative actions toward a person. • Can be intentional or unintentional Institutional Racism Institutional Racism: Patterns by which racial inequality is structured through key cultural institutions, polices and systems. • Includes education, health, housing, employment, legal system. Racial Ideology Racial Ideology: A set of popular ideas about race that allows the discriminatory behaviors of individuals and institutions to seem reasonable, rational and normal. • Ideas about superiority of ones race over another caused people in US to believe that slavery was natural. and European settlers had a God given tight to “civilize” and “tame” the American West. • Eduardo Bonilla-Silva critiques the contemporary calls in the US culture for color blindness. Resisting Racism • Steven Gregory ethnography Black Corona reveals the power of local communities of color to mobilize and engaged on political activism. • Through community based action, LeFrak City residents worked to establish their position as political actors, assert control over neighborhoods physical condition and insist on self deﬁnition rather than accept stereotypes held by surrounding communities. Race, Racism and Whiteness “White Privilege” • Peggy MacIntosh writes of “an invisible package of unearned assets. Through these assets whites have become beneﬁciaries of cultural norms, values, etc -Identiﬁes 6 privileges ranging from mundane to profound. Intersections of Whiteness and Class Intersectionality: An analytical framework for assessing how factors such as race, gender and class interact to shape individual life chances and societal patterns of stratiﬁcation. • Joe Feagin and Melvin Sikes write about middle class African Americans who despite their social class stars continue to face racial discrimination. -Becasue race and class intersect so deeply, improved class status cannot be assumed to bring a decrease in the experience of racial discrimination. • Whiteness is also stratiﬁed along deep intersecting lines of class and region, gender and sexuality. -Jane Gibson explores the area southwest of Gainesville in which a community of poor whites have been systemically cut off from local means of living. -Stereotypes portray locals as “white trash” “swamp trash” and “crackers” who are dirty, skinny, shoeless, toothless and illiterate.
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