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Chapter 5 notes

by: Autumn Wetzel

Chapter 5 notes CCJ 4450

Autumn Wetzel
GPA 3.52

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Chapter 5 Notes
Leadership and Management in Criminal Justice
Dr. Shawn Keller
Class Notes
leadership and management, Criminal Justice
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Autumn Wetzel on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ 4450 at Florida Gulf Coast University taught by Dr. Shawn Keller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 10/09/16
Chapter 5 Human Behavior  Behavior: can be defined as anything an individual does that involves self­initiated  action and/or reaction to a given stimulus.  Normal human beings exhibit two basic types of behavior simultaneously and are able to  integrate them into a stable persona: 1. Inherited behavior­ inherited, or innate, behavior refers to any behavioral  response or reflex exhibited by people due to their genetic endowment if the  process of natural selection. These behaviors are modified through adaptation as  the environment acts on the individual.  2. Learned behavior: Learned, or operant, behavior involves cognitive adaptation  that enhance a human being’s ability to cope with changes in the environment and to manipulate the environment in ways that improve the chances for survival. Social Relationships A social relationship exists when people have reciprocal expectations about one another  so that they act in relatively patterned ways.  Significant others are individuals who have great importance for an individual such as a  police officer’s immediate supervisor, family member, or partner.  People shape their conscious and unconscious behavior in relation to the behavioral  expectations of significant others within groups. Culture reflects the shared language, events, symbols, rituals, values, and norms  indigenous to a particular group. Culture embodies share beliefs (how things work) and values (what is important) that are  internalized by members of a group to produce behavioral norms (the way things “ought  to be done”).  Synergistic effect is by coordination across individuals, activities, or functions, it  becomes possible to create a high performance group whose performance as a whole is  greater than the sum of its parts.  Socialization is the process by which group­shared beliefs, values, attitudes, and norms  have been internalized, and they serve as prescriptive guides to appropriate behavior.  These beliefs, values, and acceptable modes of behavior are learned through the process  of organizational socialization and are often expressed as rationalizations for behavior.  For any leadership intervention to succeed, the change agent must be able to stand  outside of the cultural value system of the organization, understand it, and change it, if  that is necessary.  Police Cultural Learning Process Police organizational culture is learned In a process of interaction with significant others During police academy training and experiences on the job It consists of accepted techniques of doing the job and Beliefs, core values, attitudes, rationalizations, and norms of behavior Individuals are accepted or not accepted based on peer evaluation of their behavior People­Oriented Management Managers who subscribe to this style of government are “organizational humanists” Introspection is the process of looking inward through the process of looking inwards  through the process of self­examination of one’s inner thoughts, feelings, and beliefs.  Being comfortable with their role as a manager in a complex organization is much easier  when they do the following: 1.   Be aware of and have the ability to accept their own strengths and weaknesses.  2.   Develop realistic expectations so as not to demand perfection from themselves or  subordinate personnel. 3.   Have the capacity to recognize and deal effectively with negative attitudes and  less­than­acceptable behavior exhibited by some others within the organization. 4.   Come to realize that their own and their subordinate’s self­esteem is dynamic and  subject to change.   Successful police managers know that their own personal beliefs, values, attitudes, and  expectations have a substantive influence on perceptions, interpersonal relations, and  work­group dynamics.  Good managers exhibit the following characteristics: 1. Understand that they are a “walking system” of conscious and unconscious values 2. Use all means at their disposal to identify personal biases that reduce their own  objectivity in assessing the on­the­job behavior of others. 3. Strive to evaluate themselves and their personal values in a rational and objective  manner. 4. Endeavor to change any of their own values and related behaviors that, based on  serious self­evaluation, need to be changed.  Ideas, Beliefs, and Values  Beliefs are ideas accepted as good or true (whether they are or not) and acted on as an  article of faith.  Values represent the ideas and beliefs through which we define our personal goals,  choose particular courses of action, and judge our own behavior in relation to that of  others.   Value System is an enduring set of beliefs, ranged in order of importance, about  preferred conduct (instrumental values) and end states of existence (terminal values).  Values are enduring yet changeable beliefs about appropriate ends (goals) and acceptable  goal­oriented behavior (means).  Basic values are acquired through imprinting, modeling, and socialization in a group  setting.   Individual values and value systems are critically important variables in that they  automatically filter the way people perceive the world around them. Humanistic Values  Humanists place a great deal of emphasis on goal­oriented communication, interaction,  and collaboration.  Effective managers are viewed as pragmatists who understand they must temper  bureaucratic values with genuine empathy if they are to accomplish the mission, goals,  and objectives of the police department. Attitudes and Opinions A personal value system is a relatively permanent perceptual framework that influences  and shapes our attitudes, opinions, and behavior.  An attitude is a general point of view that is a composite of our beliefs concerning a  particular person, object, event, or situation. An attitude can also be described as a state of mind in which one’s likes and dislikes are  translated into a judgement about the intrinsic worth of a certain person, event, or thing. Values (general principals) generate attitudes (personal judgements) and lead to specific  behavior (cognitive response to stimuli). The relationship between values and attitudes are: 1.   A value is a single belief; an attitude grows out of several related beliefs  concerning a single object or situation. 2.   A value ranks objects and situations; an attitude focuses on a specific object or  situation. 3.   A value is a standard; an attitude may or may not function as a standard.  4.   Values are enduring beliefs, few in number; attitudes are multiple and tend to  change as new objects or situations are encountered. 5.   Values are central to the personality and the cognitive makeup; attitudes are less  so. 6.   Values are very broad, whereas attitudes are more overtly linked to particular  objects or situations. 7.   Values reflect adjective, ego­defensive, and knowledge functions explicitly,  whereas attitudes do so implicitly. Attitudes are identifiable predispositions to  react in a favorable or unfavorable way to a particular person, event, or object in  the environment. Acquiring Attitudes 1.   Direct experience 2.   Association 3.   Social Learning Functions and Characteristics 1. Knowledge function 2. Instrumental function 3. Value­expressive function 4. Ego­defensive function  An attitude are ordinarily discussed in terms of their: 1. Valence 2. Multiplicity 3. Relation to need 4. Centrality 5. Determinacy Attitudes and Work Introspection and attitude analysis help police managers to: 1. Identify their basic beliefs 2. Clarify their personal values 3. Explore their attitudes 4. Understand their motives 5. Accept individual differences 6. Understand behavior of others 7. Develop healthy relationships 8. Avoid interpersonal conflict 9. Manage personnel effectively Paradigms, Perception, Motives, and Human Behavior Paradigms A cognitive set of rules and regulations that does two things: 1. Establishes or defines boundaries 2. Tells a person how to behave inside the boundaries in order to be successful  People use this perceptual apparatus to help them do the following: 1. Relate their past experiences to current situations 2. Choose the various stimuli to which they react 3. Group stimuli into a manageable number of categories 4. Fill in missing data about persons, places, or things 5. Defend themselves against serious threats to the ego Perceptions  Every perceptual event has three components: 1. Perceiver 2. Target 3. Situation  In more complicated behaviors, there is a chain of discrete events between the  stimulus and the operant (intentional) response.   Perceptual organization is the psychological predisposition to avoid the discomfort  normally associated with unorganized information by reconfiguring and attributing  meaning to it based on each person’s beliefs, values, attitudes, interests, motives, and  experiences, and expectations.  Leader’s role in organization morality 1. Identify the expected value system 2. Model what you expect in others 3. Pay attention to the right things 4. Reward when appropriate 5. Discipline when necessary 6. React calm in crises 


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