Chapter 5 notes
Popular in Leadership and Management in Criminal Justice
Popular in Department
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Autumn Wetzel on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ 4450 at Florida Gulf Coast University taught by Dr. Shawn Keller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
Reviews for Chapter 5 notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/09/16
Chapter 5 Human Behavior Behavior: can be defined as anything an individual does that involves selfinitiated action and/or reaction to a given stimulus. Normal human beings exhibit two basic types of behavior simultaneously and are able to integrate them into a stable persona: 1. Inherited behavior inherited, or innate, behavior refers to any behavioral response or reflex exhibited by people due to their genetic endowment if the process of natural selection. These behaviors are modified through adaptation as the environment acts on the individual. 2. Learned behavior: Learned, or operant, behavior involves cognitive adaptation that enhance a human being’s ability to cope with changes in the environment and to manipulate the environment in ways that improve the chances for survival. Social Relationships A social relationship exists when people have reciprocal expectations about one another so that they act in relatively patterned ways. Significant others are individuals who have great importance for an individual such as a police officer’s immediate supervisor, family member, or partner. People shape their conscious and unconscious behavior in relation to the behavioral expectations of significant others within groups. Culture reflects the shared language, events, symbols, rituals, values, and norms indigenous to a particular group. Culture embodies share beliefs (how things work) and values (what is important) that are internalized by members of a group to produce behavioral norms (the way things “ought to be done”). Synergistic effect is by coordination across individuals, activities, or functions, it becomes possible to create a high performance group whose performance as a whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Socialization is the process by which groupshared beliefs, values, attitudes, and norms have been internalized, and they serve as prescriptive guides to appropriate behavior. These beliefs, values, and acceptable modes of behavior are learned through the process of organizational socialization and are often expressed as rationalizations for behavior. For any leadership intervention to succeed, the change agent must be able to stand outside of the cultural value system of the organization, understand it, and change it, if that is necessary. Police Cultural Learning Process Police organizational culture is learned In a process of interaction with significant others During police academy training and experiences on the job It consists of accepted techniques of doing the job and Beliefs, core values, attitudes, rationalizations, and norms of behavior Individuals are accepted or not accepted based on peer evaluation of their behavior PeopleOriented Management Managers who subscribe to this style of government are “organizational humanists” Introspection is the process of looking inward through the process of looking inwards through the process of selfexamination of one’s inner thoughts, feelings, and beliefs. Being comfortable with their role as a manager in a complex organization is much easier when they do the following: 1. Be aware of and have the ability to accept their own strengths and weaknesses. 2. Develop realistic expectations so as not to demand perfection from themselves or subordinate personnel. 3. Have the capacity to recognize and deal effectively with negative attitudes and lessthanacceptable behavior exhibited by some others within the organization. 4. Come to realize that their own and their subordinate’s selfesteem is dynamic and subject to change. Successful police managers know that their own personal beliefs, values, attitudes, and expectations have a substantive influence on perceptions, interpersonal relations, and workgroup dynamics. Good managers exhibit the following characteristics: 1. Understand that they are a “walking system” of conscious and unconscious values 2. Use all means at their disposal to identify personal biases that reduce their own objectivity in assessing the onthejob behavior of others. 3. Strive to evaluate themselves and their personal values in a rational and objective manner. 4. Endeavor to change any of their own values and related behaviors that, based on serious selfevaluation, need to be changed. Ideas, Beliefs, and Values Beliefs are ideas accepted as good or true (whether they are or not) and acted on as an article of faith. Values represent the ideas and beliefs through which we define our personal goals, choose particular courses of action, and judge our own behavior in relation to that of others. Value System is an enduring set of beliefs, ranged in order of importance, about preferred conduct (instrumental values) and end states of existence (terminal values). Values are enduring yet changeable beliefs about appropriate ends (goals) and acceptable goaloriented behavior (means). Basic values are acquired through imprinting, modeling, and socialization in a group setting. Individual values and value systems are critically important variables in that they automatically filter the way people perceive the world around them. Humanistic Values Humanists place a great deal of emphasis on goaloriented communication, interaction, and collaboration. Effective managers are viewed as pragmatists who understand they must temper bureaucratic values with genuine empathy if they are to accomplish the mission, goals, and objectives of the police department. Attitudes and Opinions A personal value system is a relatively permanent perceptual framework that influences and shapes our attitudes, opinions, and behavior. An attitude is a general point of view that is a composite of our beliefs concerning a particular person, object, event, or situation. An attitude can also be described as a state of mind in which one’s likes and dislikes are translated into a judgement about the intrinsic worth of a certain person, event, or thing. Values (general principals) generate attitudes (personal judgements) and lead to specific behavior (cognitive response to stimuli). The relationship between values and attitudes are: 1. A value is a single belief; an attitude grows out of several related beliefs concerning a single object or situation. 2. A value ranks objects and situations; an attitude focuses on a specific object or situation. 3. A value is a standard; an attitude may or may not function as a standard. 4. Values are enduring beliefs, few in number; attitudes are multiple and tend to change as new objects or situations are encountered. 5. Values are central to the personality and the cognitive makeup; attitudes are less so. 6. Values are very broad, whereas attitudes are more overtly linked to particular objects or situations. 7. Values reflect adjective, egodefensive, and knowledge functions explicitly, whereas attitudes do so implicitly. Attitudes are identifiable predispositions to react in a favorable or unfavorable way to a particular person, event, or object in the environment. Acquiring Attitudes 1. Direct experience 2. Association 3. Social Learning Functions and Characteristics 1. Knowledge function 2. Instrumental function 3. Valueexpressive function 4. Egodefensive function An attitude are ordinarily discussed in terms of their: 1. Valence 2. Multiplicity 3. Relation to need 4. Centrality 5. Determinacy Attitudes and Work Introspection and attitude analysis help police managers to: 1. Identify their basic beliefs 2. Clarify their personal values 3. Explore their attitudes 4. Understand their motives 5. Accept individual differences 6. Understand behavior of others 7. Develop healthy relationships 8. Avoid interpersonal conflict 9. Manage personnel effectively Paradigms, Perception, Motives, and Human Behavior Paradigms A cognitive set of rules and regulations that does two things: 1. Establishes or defines boundaries 2. Tells a person how to behave inside the boundaries in order to be successful People use this perceptual apparatus to help them do the following: 1. Relate their past experiences to current situations 2. Choose the various stimuli to which they react 3. Group stimuli into a manageable number of categories 4. Fill in missing data about persons, places, or things 5. Defend themselves against serious threats to the ego Perceptions Every perceptual event has three components: 1. Perceiver 2. Target 3. Situation In more complicated behaviors, there is a chain of discrete events between the stimulus and the operant (intentional) response. Perceptual organization is the psychological predisposition to avoid the discomfort normally associated with unorganized information by reconfiguring and attributing meaning to it based on each person’s beliefs, values, attitudes, interests, motives, and experiences, and expectations. Leader’s role in organization morality 1. Identify the expected value system 2. Model what you expect in others 3. Pay attention to the right things 4. Reward when appropriate 5. Discipline when necessary 6. React calm in crises