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Invading Land

by: Bri M

Invading Land BIOL 3030

Bri M

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Lecture 10
Vertebrate Biology
Richard Blob
Class Notes
Invading, Land
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bri M on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3030 at Clemson University taught by Richard Blob in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Vertebrate Biology in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 10/09/16
Lecture 10 - Invading Land ❖ Land and air are different than WATER → physical characteristics ➢ Air is 800x less dense than water ➢ Environment doesn’t support body on land ➢ SKELETON has to take over body support ❖ Air has more 02 than water does which makes it easier for animals to move ➢ Respiration is less energetically expensive ❖ The air temp is much less stable on land than it is on water ➢ Land vertebrates need to THERMOREGULATE ❖ Sensory mechanisms ➢ Sensation of electrical fields is not viable on land like in water ➢ Air movement won’t stimulate lateral line system and it is lost in land vertebrates SO…. not being surrounded by water can account for water loss, and problems in locomotion INVADING LAND: DESIGN ISSUES ❖ Support ➢ Density of body tissue → 1050 kg/m^3 ➢ Density of water → 998 - 1024 kg/m^3 ➢ Density of air → 1.205 kg/m^3 ■ This is about 800x less than WATER ❖ Since tissue density is closest to that of is able to minimize effects of gravity ❖ In water the skeleton serves as ➢ An area for muscle attachment ➢ Menas for transmitting forces throughout the body ➢ This is not necessarily required to maintain body shape ❖ When an animal is on land it requires more support than it would in water because it’s body is less dense than the surrounding environment MODIFICATIONS TO INTERNAL SKELETON IN LAND VERTEBRATES 1. Robust ribs a. Helps to support abdominal organs ( such as digestive tract, heart, and lungs) 2. Changes in girdle attachments (support off the ground) a. Pectoral girdle is detached from the skull (this increases head mobility) b. Firmly attached limb girdles to vertebrae column allows for legs to swing 3. Zygapophyses → the facets between vertebrae a. This helps support the body when it is off the ground (ie walking/running rather than slithering like a snake) AS ANIMALS GET BIGGER, FORCES ON THEIR BONES GET BIGGER AT A FASTER RATE THAN ABILITY TO RESIST FORCES INVADING LAND: Consequences of Size ❖ Accommodating size increases ➢ Relatively more robust skeleton → positive allometry ➢ This is less risky/vigorous activity INVADING LAND: LOCOMOTION AND SUPPORT ❖ Newton’s third law of motion → applies to ALL LOCOMOTION ➢ For every active force there is an equal and opposite reaction force ➢ To move… animals must exert force on their surrounding environment, which exerts a propulsive reaction force back on animals ➢ Ex: ■ Fish use any part of their body to exert forces on it (ex: caudal swimming) ■ Land vert’s make POINT CONTACTS with environment to exert force on it ❖ Land vertebrates use the same structures (limbs) for support AND locomotion ➢ Must be stiff, strong, and flexible ■ Land vertebrates limbs use JOINTED SEGMENTS​ (bones are still; joints allow for mobility) ■ These limbs evolved from SARCOPTERYGIAN FINS with a robust skeleton in which rays were lost ➢ A typical fish fin wouldn't work on land because it’s boy rays are too flexible ➢ A body must be stiff, strong, AND flexible ❖ A fish's body axis movements dominate locomotion ❖ A land vertebrate body axis movements are reduced and limbs become more important for locomotion INVADING LAND: CHANGES IN FEEDING SUCTION ❖ Suction → draw viscous water into mouth, take food in ➢ Most often seen in fish and other aquatic animals ➢ Class example: humans can’t use suction on land ❖ Air is less viscous than water so suction DOESN’T WORK ❖ Land vertebrates must use different strategies ❖ RAM FEEDING​: move head over prey and engulf whole ❖ BITING​: taking chunks out of bigger prey with teeth ❖ Other changes required since water is not brought in with food ❖ Use ​MOBILE, MUSCULAR TONGUE​ to move food around and help swallow ❖ SALIVARY GLANDS​: secrete lubricating fluid, help chemically digest carbs INVADING LAND: CHANGES IN RESPIRATORY FUNCTION ❖ Gills don’t work on land ➢ They are too floppy and delicate - they collapse in air so surface area is covered and can’t extract oxygen ❖ LUNGS WORK ON LAND ➢ Air is less dense than water ➢ This is not so energy costly to breathe into sac and turn around to exhale ❖ Muscle contraction EXPANDS CHEST CAVITY → decreases lung pressure ❖ Muscles relax COMPRESS CHEST CAVITY → increase lung pressure, force air out INVADING LAND: CHANGES IN CIRCULATORY FUNCTION ❖ Higher blood pressure is required on land​ because blood must be pumped vs. gravity ❖ 2 circulatory circuits: ➢ PULMONARY CIRCUIT: ​ heart to lungs, back to heart ➢ SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT​: oxygenated blood from heart to body, return to heart ❖ In fish with gills ➢ They have a TUBULAR HEART that pumps blood to gills blood picks up 02, then goes to rest of body ❖ In land vertebrates with lungs ➢ There are side-by-side pumps ➢ Right side pumps to lungs and returns to heart with oxygen (PULMONARY) ➢ Left side pumps out to body and returns to heart, minus 02 (SYSTEMIC) ❖ Loss of reorganization of blood vessels running to gills (AORTIC ARCHES) ➢ Fish with gills and lungs → ​ ncestrally 6 arches ■ First lost with evolution of jaws ➢ Land vertebrates with lungs only ■ Arch 2 and part of arch 6 are lost with loss of gills INVADING LAND: PREVENTING WATER LOSS 1. SKIN a. Terrestrial verts have epidermis with two layers i. Stratum germinativum (deep, living) ii. Stratum corneum (outermost, dead) 1. Protein and lipid protect against water loss b. Aquatic animals i. Have epidermis and dermis 2. URINARY BLADDER a. Stores urine so doesn’t drain constantly b. Ancestrally probably capable of recovering water to body, as in many modern amphibians and reptiles INVADING LAND: REGULATING BODY TEMPERATURE ❖ Land temps are much less stable than water ❖ Verts must THERMOREGULATE to achieve best level of performance ➢ Avenues for gaining/losing heat: ■ CONVECTION: through air ■ CONDUCTION: through ground ■ EVAPORATION: through water loss only ■ METABOLISM: internally generated (gain only) ❖ HOW TO CONTROL HEAT GAIN OR LOSS ➢ Behavioral - move in or out of hot/cold locations (ie basking in sun) ➢ Physiological - dilation(expansion) or constriction of blood vessels ■ Expanding blood vessels close to body surface allows more blood to flow faster through them and heat up ■ Heated blood travels to body core which warms it up


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