e media survey: Chapters 6 & 7 ( radio and film)
e media survey: Chapters 6 & 7 ( radio and film) EMDT 1070
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marjan Notetaker on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EMDT 1070 at University of Cincinnati taught by Professor Lou Olenick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see E Media Survey in Electronic Media Technology at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
CHAPTER SIX Film The chapter begins with the history of films, from it entrepreneurial beginnings thr ough the introduction of its narrative and visual language, to its establishment large, studio run industry. It details Hollywood’s relationship with its early audience and changes in the structure and content of films resulting from the introduction of te levision. It also looked at the contemporary movie production, distribution and exhibition systems and how convergence is altering all three, the influence of the major studios and the economic pressures on them in an increasingly multimedia environment. It also highlights on the special place movies hold for us and how ever younger audience and the films that targets them may affect our culture. History In 1873 former California governor Leland Stanford needed help in winning a bet: he had made a bet with a friend convinced that a horse in full gallop had all feet of the ground, he had to prove it so he hired photographer Fadweard Maybridge who worked on it for four years before finding a solution. In 1877 Maybridge arranged a series of still cameras along a stretch of racetrack. As the horse sprinted by, each camera took its picture. The resulting photographs won Stanford his bet and also sparked an idea on Maybridge causing him to develop Zoopraxiscope -‐ a machine for projecting slides into a distant surface. The Lumiere brothers made the next advancement. In 1895 they patented the Cinematographic device that both photographed and projected action. By 1890‘s French filmmaker George Melies began making narrative motion pictures exhibiting one scene, one shot movies but soon began making stories made on sequence. He made the film’ A trip to the moon’ in 1902. Other scientists such as Edwin S. Porter improved on using movies to tell a story. The first sound films were that one’s produced by warner brothers in 1 920. The industry prospered not just because of its artistry, drive and innovation but because it used these to meet the needs of a growing audience. Movies like books are a culturally special medium. They hold very special place in the people’s culture. Trends and convergence in movie making. • Conglomeration and blockbuster movies • Concept movies—making movies simple and easier to understand • Audience research¬¬¬¬—before movies are released, the concept, plot and characters are subjected to market testing. Often trailers are produced and tested with sample audience. • Sequels, remakes and Franchise —these are movies produced with the intention of producing several more sequel e.g. prison break. • Merchandise movies—this are movies produced to generate in terest for non-‐film products as for their intrinsic value as movies. The developing media literacy segment discussed “recognizing product placement” were it emphasis recognition of advert placements in scripts as a valuable literacy skill. CHAPTER SEVEN Radio, Recording and Popular Music. Technical and social beginning of both radio and sound recording is discussed in this chapter. It highlights the coming of broadcasting and hoe the growth of regulatory organization led to the mediums “golden age” the heart of the chapter covers how television changed radio and produced the medium with which we are now familiar with. It also reviewed the scope and nature of contemporary radio especially its rebirth as a local, fragmented, specialized medium. It examine s how these characteristics save advertisers and listeners. The chapter then explores the relationship between radio, the modern recording industry, popular music and the way new technologies serve and challenge all three. History In 1906 on Christmas eve, the first radio broadcast was aired at Bran rock, this was as a result of cumulative success by scientists such as Guglielmo Marconi, Reginald Fessenden, James Clark Maxwell, Henrich Hertz, etc. his listeners were sailors at sea and a few newspaper hous es equipped to receive the transmission. Later that same year American Lee De Forest invented “audion tube” as vacuum tube that amplified wireless signals. This made possible for reliable transmission of clear voices and music. Sound recording started in 1 887 with the invention of the ‘talking machine’ a device for replacing sound by that used a hand cranked grooved cylinder and a needle passing along the groove of the rotating cylinder and hitting bumps was converted into electrical energy that activates a diaphragm in a loud speaker and produced sound—this invention was made by Thomas Edison. On September 30, 1920 a Westinghouse executive, impressed with press accounts of the number of listeners who were picking up broadcasts from the garage radio station of Frank Conrad, asked him to move his operation to Westinghouse factory expand his power and on October 27 1920 experimental station 8XK in Pittsburgh received a license from the department of commerce to broadcast. On November 2 KDKA made the first comme rcial radio broadcast announcing the results of the presidential election that sent Warren G. Hardy to the White House. Scope and Nature of the Radio Industry • Radio is local • Radio is Fragmented • Radio is specialized • Radio is personal • Radio is mobile Radio as an advertising medium : advertisers enjoy the specialization of radio because it gives them access to homogenous groups of listeners to whom products can be pitched. Trend and Convergence in Radio and Sound Recording . Emerging of changing technologies has affected the production and distribution aspects of both radio and sound recording. • The impact of television: television fundamentally altered radio structure and relationship with its audience. Television specifically MTV introduction in 1981 altered radio—record relationship as music are now released on MTV instead of radio. • Satellite and Cable: the convergence of radio and satellite has aided the rebirth of radio as music and other forms of radio content can now be distributed in expen sively to audience through satellite. • Mobile phone • Terrestrial digital radio • Web radio and podcasting In the chapters developing media literacy skills segment -‐ the issue of shock jokes was discussed. This Baran poses a question as to whether litera te individual would allow this shock jokes to exits.
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