PSYC 2010: Chapter 6
PSYC 2010: Chapter 6 PYSC 2010 - 006 (Psychology, Lucia Lazarowski, Intro to Psychology)
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashleigh McClure on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PYSC 2010 - 006 (Psychology, Lucia Lazarowski, Intro to Psychology) at Auburn University taught by Lucia Lazarowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Chapter 6: Learning 9/21/16 1:58 PM • Learning ○ A relatively lasting change in behavior, due to experience § Is adaptive □ Nurture side of debate ® What foods and objects are dangerous ® What sights and sounds signal danger ® Basic abilities ® Social rules □ Nature side of debate ® No learning is required ® Adaptive ® Reflexes ◊ Infant reflexes } Rooting reflex – Baby turning it's head to the side to try and feed } Grasp reflex – Baby will hold your fingers } The moro reflex – Baby will throw hands out to catch itself if falling § Behaviors without warning □ Startle to loud noises □ Blink to puffs of air □ Cry/get upset when injured □ Salivate to food ® Unconditioned Response (UR) ◊ A response we exhibit without prior warning } Example – Startling to loud noises ® Unconditioned Stimulus ◊ Elicits a response without any learning } Example – The loud noise • Classical Conditioning ○ Behavior that comes from associating two things together § Example □ Krispy Kreme sign is associated with salivation □ Sight of needles is associated with anxiety □ Dog bowl is associated with salication □ Creepy music is associated with being nervous ○ Conditioned Stimulus leads to Conditioned Response ○ History § Ivan Pavlov □ Salivary reflex § After a while something strange started to happen □ Dogs would salivate when Pavlov would walk into the room and not just the food § Pavlov's Experiment □ Step 1 ® Establish reflex ◊ Food (US) will cause dog to salivate (UR) □ Step 2 ® Neutral stimulus ◊ Bell } Had no meaning to dogs because they had never heard a bell ring □ Step 3 ® Pair NS + US ◊ Pavlov would ring the bell every time the dogs would get food □ Step 4 ® Present the NS alone ◊ Ringing the bell without feeding the dog would cause the dog to salivate } The bell has become the CS } Salivation is the CR • Little Albert Experiment ○ James Watson § Are fears the result of conditioning / experiences? § Wanted to elicit a fear in the baby □ Step 1 ® Strikes metal gong which startles Albert and made him cry □ Step 2 ® Paired a rat with the loud noise of the gong which caused Albert to cry □ Step 3 ® Albert associated the loud noise with the rat and started fearing them • Process of Conditioning ○ Stimulus Generalization } Conditioned Response generalizes to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus □ Examples ® Being scared of snakes but by default also worms, garden hoses, ect ® Little Albert being scared of white beards, fuzzy pillows and rabbits. ○ Special Cases } Taste aversion conditioning □ Long gap □ Aversion develops after just one experience } Evolutionary meaningful associations □ Snakes □ Spiders □ Heights ○ Applications } Treatment of phobias } Wildlife management □ Example ® Coyotes were given tainted sheep meat and they stopped killing them } Substance abuse treatment MONDAYS CLASS Operant Conditioning • Punishment ○ When a behavior's outcome makes it less likely to occur again } Example □ Getting a speeding ticket for driving over the speed limit ○ Types } Behavior can be decreased by different kinds of punishment □ Positive Punishment (+) ® Receiving something undesirable ◊ Pain, embarrassment, extra work □ Negative Punishment (-) ® Receiving something desirable ◊ Time-out, loss of privilege + - Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement R- R+ Positive Punishment Negative Punishment P+ P- ○ Punishment vs. Negative Reinforcement } What is the behavior? } What is the consequence that follows? □ Is the consquence added or removed? □ Does the behavior change? ○ Problems with using punishment } Not as effective as reinforcement □ Does not teach what is correct } Often implemented incorrectly □ Must be applied immediately □ Lying/avoidance □ Fear/anxiety ○ Corporal Punishment } Poor parent/child relationship } Mental health problems } Modeling violence □ Alternatives ® Time-outs ® Small fines ® Removal of privileges ® Reinforcement • Ways We Learn ○ Classical conditioning Operant conditioning ○ } Reinforcement and punishment