PSYC 2010: Chapter 8
PSYC 2010: Chapter 8 PYSC 2010 - 006 (Psychology, Lucia Lazarowski, Intro to Psychology)
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashleigh McClure on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PYSC 2010 - 006 (Psychology, Lucia Lazarowski, Intro to Psychology) at Auburn University taught by Lucia Lazarowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Chapter 8: Thinking and Intelligence 10/7/16 2:06 PM • Thinking ○ Manipulation of mental representations ○ Efficiently organize information ○ Schemas § Cognitive structures that help us □ Perceive □ Organize □ Process □ Adaptive ® Enable quick judgements ® Less effort ○ Stereotypes and gender roles § What does a scientist look like? § What does a president look like? ○ Decision Making § Going to class § What to wear § What to have for dinner § How do you make decisions? □ Normative Rational ® □ Descriptive ® What we actually do § Heuristics □ Fast and efficient strategies used to make decisions ® Usually unaware ® Requires minimal cognitive resources ® Often biased □ We use comparison to judge value ® How do you feel about your Exam 1 score? ◊ What if the class average is 75? ◊ What if it was a 95? § Anchoring □ Using a reference point (usually a first or more prominent piece of information) § Framing □ Emphasis of loss vs. gain § Availability Heuristic □ Tendency to make based on the answer that most easily comes to mind § Representativeness Heuristics □ Tendency to categorize based on similarity to our prototype of that category ® Ignoring base rates Problem Solving • Restructuring • Functional Fixedness ○ Having fixed ideas about the typical functions of the object
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