Anthro week 7
Anthro week 7 201g
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brenna Graham on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 201g at New Mexico State University taught by Dr. Kelly jenks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in Cultural Anthropology at New Mexico State University.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Anthropolo gyW eek 7 (and 6) Archaeology 1) Archeology is the study of human past through material culture a) Material culture is anything that humans have shaped as a result of culture. b) It helps understand change in cultures and human biology over long periods of time, that are generally not otherwise study able c) Helps understanding cultural variation in the past 2) Archeologists study: a) Types of material culture i) Artifacts-portable objects such as arrow heads intentionally modified by humans ii) Features- non-portable material culture iii) Ecofacts- by-products of human activity, ex garbage dump. 3) Provenience- precise location where Material culture was found a) Primary context, where lived and died. Secondary context, where it was put separate from lived and died location. b) If it’s not out of its primary location very little can be known about it since we can’t use current knowledge of occupants. c) Where it was can also show its use in context to the areas culture and change our understanding of that culture. d) Material culture is influenced by cultural behaviors, making the creation or change of an object more common. 4) Methods for Data collection a) Pedestrian survey- dudes wander around and find stuff in an area tracking location etc. b) Excavation- dig to find stuff c) Remote sensing-using satellite etc. to find underground stuff. 5) Archaeological dating a) Relative dating- dating an object using its location and age of its surroundings i) Stratigraphy- aging according to the layers of dirt around it and the general age of said dirt. Since the higher up layers of dirt are more recent ii) Seriation- placement of objects found in same place by order of age. b) Absolute dating i) Radiocarbon dating- using the amount of carbon14 isotope and its average rate of decay to date the objects death, only works with organic materials. Has a similar thing in Argon dating? 6) Upper Paleolithic cultures a) Foragers living in small bands with some social hierarchy b) Generally, more populous and healthier and more creative than Neanderthals c) Regional subcultures developed each adapted to local environments d) Shift to more varied foraging 7) Foragers a) Subsisting of food naturally occurring b) Generally, had more free time and shared food throughout. c) This allowed for more creativity on the part of the foragers making tools such as instruments where Neanderthals didn’t i) Art such as a goddess of fertility were common. These are all voluptuous and curvy. ii) Cave art such as hand prints on walls or animals iii) Handprints used to assume age and gender of participants 8) Grave Goods a) What is buried with the individuals depends on the status of the individual b) The value of the objects is higher when the individual is more important. 9) Blades and micro blades a) Blades are larger similar to arrow heads b) Micro blades are small and go in a slot in a tool and are replaceable c) Atlatl- spear thrower, makes aiming easier and each hit harder and no squished by mammoth d) Harpoons, more violent results e) Netting, textile impressions found show capability to make textiles and netting f) Hats found 10) Foraging to Agriculture a) Pleistocene i) Ice age and megafauna go extinct ii) Wide variety of food allowing future agriculture b) Examples of i) Nutarians- living in fertile crescent so no need to move to forage ii) Became complex foragers c) Proto-domestication i) Cultural selection for edible grasses ii) Stored wild seeds through dry season d) Natation culture i) Population growth ii) Increasing complexity iii) Since drought some became farmers and some went to foraging nomadic life. 11) Neolithic revolution a) Domestication of plants and animals b) Gradual c) Domestication- where one species modifies the genetic make-up of another 12) Plant domestication a) Increased size of plants edible parts b) Reduction of natural seed dispersal c) Loss of protective devices d) Loss of delayed germination e) Simultaneous ripening of seed or fruit f) Ex: Teosinte- old maize i) Made to taste better and more healthy g) Animals domesticated for food milk fur work etc. i) Dogs- earliest domestication ever. ii) Ex cats in Africa (Egypt) h) Results i) Lower nutrition in agriculturalists ii) Spread of disease since closer packed to animals that carry disease iii) Population increase iv) Female fertility v) Over reliance on key resources causing susceptible to mass famine i) Complex societies i) Sedentary ii) Increases population iii) Ownership of property iv) Surplus accumulation v) Specialization of occupation- since very few people needed to actually make food so other jobs occur. vi) Social stratification-results in leaders vii) Need for more land since more people and more food necessary to feed them j) Markers of complexity i) Urban population-cities and hierarchy of buildings ii) Public buildings and defensive features iii) Social hierarchy- shown by owned items, health of body, architecture value iv) Writing- bureaucracy, letters, receipts, laws, and prayers k) Organized religion- i) Polytheistic each state with own god ii) Priest class iii) Temple architecture iv) Elaborate burials l) Craft Specialization i) Bricks ii) Pottery iii) Musical instruments m)War between states i) To gain more land n) Results in very salty land i) Hot dry climate ii) Wheat to barley Culture is next