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Art 126; Week 1 Notes

by: Samantha Pastron

Art 126; Week 1 Notes ART 126

Marketplace > Lafayette College > Art > ART 126 > Art 126 Week 1 Notes
Samantha Pastron
Lafayette College

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Brunelleschi and Leon Alberti
The History of Architecture
Mr. Mattison
Class Notes
Art, Architecture
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Pastron on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 126 at Lafayette College taught by Mr. Mattison in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see The History of Architecture in Art at Lafayette College.

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Date Created: 10/09/16
Brunelleschi and Early Renaissance Tuesday, August 30 Brunelleschi & The Early Renaissance in Italy • renaissance means the rebirth of the new age • it is looking back at classicalism • at this time Italy was made up of city states competing artistically, intellectually and militaristically • the medieval period was a veil of tears to get through to heaven but renaissance shows appreciation of mortal life FLORENCE - developed sounds banking system - Medic family, a banking family - sits on a plateau and built on Arno river providing transportation, water, industrial power, sewage - dense population - walled city - close proximity leads to sharing of ideas - a model for early cities - close to a democracy, an oligarchy FILLIPO BRUNELLESCHI - 1377-1446 - born and raised in florence - trained as a craftsmen, raised in 2nd class, not considered an intellectual - studied sculpture and then switched to architecture - went to Rome with Donatello to study architecture - 1419 he blossomed as an architect - architects were called “master masons” - name os master masons was not important or recorded until the renaissance and this change shows humanism (human accomplishment) which characterizes the renaissance 1 Brunelleschi and Early Renaissance - one of the 1st biographies of the period was written about Brunelleschi THE FOUNDLINGS’ HOSPITAL 1419, Florence - One of Brunelleschi’s 1st projects, and one of his smaller projects - an orphanage set up by cities, this shows cities taking care of their people, previously unwanted babies would go to the church - this is a building that can be humanly understood - Geometry was a system that connected humans to gods - building is deliberately not decorated which directly opposes Medievalism - modeled after the Forum in rome with the loggias, and columns and completely skips medieval traditions - Hospital is set in an open square (squares were mandated by law as civic spies to encourage the spread of ideas and area also called piazzas) - 100 years later another loggia was added next to the hospital in the same square intentionally coordinated with the hospital and is an example of good urban planning - example of the renaissance themes of a sense of humanity, and going back to antiquity, especially Roman and returns to classicalism - These ceramics in every spandrel are of the original foundling child, Jesus Christ 2 Brunelleschi and Early Renaissance DOME of The Florence Cathedral 1420-1436, Florence - Mixture of art and science - 3 parts: (1) dome (2) drum (3) lantern - NOT a true hemispherical dome but an 8 sided cloister wall - started in 1296 and has a medieval nave - rivaling antiquity - outer and inner shells with grid work in-between - 4 rings built in interior structure to hold exterior and horizontal forces - self supporting at every level without scaffolding - exedras counteract lateral forces and turn them into vertical forces - sub history of domes in architecture (think forward to St Peters, St Pauls and the dome in D.C.) S. LORENZO, 1421-28,1441-60, Florence - Home church for the Medici family - overall design similar to the cathedral of florence - Brunelleschi created the nave (not the dome or exterior) - white and grey stone 3 Brunelleschi and Early Renaissance - arches and classical column leading up nave using module system, reflecting the Foundlings hospital - visitors are made aware of the geometric structure, clear and understandable - which is the exact opposite of gothic churches - clerestory lighting (windows along nave), flat roof - goes back to christianity basilicas and skips the gothic tradition - roman classical columns - imposting blocks, raises arches above columns which lets people see the process and engineering - prime example of the spirit of renaissance architecture: its letting you know how this building was created, acknowledging human accomplishments OLD SACRISTY of S. Lorenzo, 1421-1428, Florence - Byzantine style: reflects Byzantine architecture of Haggai Sophia/ chapels in Revena (dome over a cube shape) - Part of San Lorenzo where the robes are stored and sacristy (bread and wine) are stored - 30 feet across and 40 feet tall - Dome over a cube 4 Brunelleschi and Early Renaissance PAZZI CHAPEL1442, Florence - later part of Brunelleschi’s career - small chapel next to the church - dome in the center, rectangular place below -meeting place for Franciscans (monks) -classical column on facade -combining straight entablature with arches -barrel vaults over rectangular extended space -everything is on a 42 inch module -outside shows whats going to happen on the inside (as indicated by barrel vaults with central dome outside and inside) - entirely coordinated building with a unifying effect SAN SPIRITO, 1436, Florence - end of Brunelleschi’s career - latin cross, long nave, short transept - arcade, classical columns - series of 36 chapels along the church unlike flat walls of San Lorenzo - OG had unrelating semi circular exterior - very volumetric, 3 dimensional, fluidity, freedom in hi late style 5 #2 Theory and Proportion September 13 Leon Alberti: Theory & Proportion (Early Renaissance) MEDICI PALACE, 1446, Florence - a palazzo: a massive urban home of an important family - designed by Michelozzo di Bartolommeo (1396-1472) - 20 buildings had to be torn down to make way for this 40 room palazzo Exterior shows 3 distinct levels Bottom Level Middle Level Third/Top Level rusticated walls, these are the stone is much softer the stone is very refined to expensive to carve and and there are many more show the family is equally therefore shows the wealth windows refined as they are tough of the family and the rough and that they are patrons of looks reflects how tough the arts the Medici are This level is where the this level is where the this floor is where the service halls are family would entertain. It bedrooms and nurseries holds the library and were located banquet rooms 1 #2 Theory and Proportion - huge cornices for a grand finish - monumental courtyard in dead center of the plan to create a safe indoor space - the courtyard has arcades similar to the Foundlings hospital - the interior and exterior architecture match - the overall design emulates ancient Roman architecture LEON ALBERTI 1404-1472 - came from a wealthy aristocratic family and was very educated TEN BOOKS OF ARCHITECTURE 1440 - raises the status of architecture - claims architects should know classic literature, city planing and be well traveled 2 #2 Theory and Proportion PALAZZO RUCELLAI1 ,455-70, Florence - pilasters going up, splitting the windows - each bay is divided more elegantly - everything is proportional - reminiscent of the colosseum in Rome and is a reference to the ancient world - it is unfinished SANTA MARIA NOVELLA (facade), 1456-70, Florence - set patterns of light and dark marble - added new facade to update an already functioning church - pointed arches were already there - arcade drawn in stone - pedimented roof like a Roman temple of the Pantheon - reliefs on the attic level - modular system shows his love of elegance and refined design - volutes are elegant curves to lead you to narrow spaces on the second floor 3 #2 Theory and Proportion MALATESTA TEMPLE (exterior design), 1450, Rimini - Alberti worked for Malatesta, a dictator that took over this church as a burial ground - Alberti creates a marble encasing - it is not finished - there are flat and shallow spaces - doesn't have characteristics of Alberti’s elegant designs, which shows he changes his style for the patrons - 3 arches on facade reflect Roman architecture and the triumphal arches from ancient Rome - if it was finished it would have had a dome and niches with statues but Alberti walked away from the project. We know this because of the coin and the drawings 4 #2 Theory and Proportion SAN ANDREA, 1470, Mantua - Mantua was an important growing city-state - this was at the end of Alberti’s career - There are 3 levels - pedimented roof - sourced from a Roman temple - raised on bases for monumentality - barrel vault entrance - corinthian pilasters - interior is an enormous barrel vault - grandeur, monumentality - looking towards high renaissance - a single space and ensure drive toward altar - 6 enormous piers (3 on each side) and between then are transverse barrel vaults which create transverse chapels and enough support to have windows in between - changes from controlled intellectual approach of the early renaissance to a style of monumentality from ancient Rome and leads to high renaissance 5


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