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Media Ethics Week 2 Notes

by: Kelsey Fagan

Media Ethics Week 2 Notes J 397

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Journalism > J 397 > Media Ethics Week 2 Notes
Kelsey Fagan
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About this Document

These are the notes for the second week of class.
Media Ethics
Jennifer Schwartz
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Fagan on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to J 397 at University of Oregon taught by Jennifer Schwartz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Media Ethics in Journalism at University of Oregon.


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Date Created: 10/09/16
J397 Notes            Week 1 Day 3 (10/4) Media Law Cont.  Privacy: o The right to be left alone o 4 types of invasion:  private facts (i.e. non­newsworthy, medical, sexual, hygiene, personal  letters, etc.)  Example: Time Magazine: Starving Glutton­ Dorothy Barber­  photographed entering a hospital and medical information released  without permission  intrusion (i.e. invasion of space where people have a reasonable  expectation of privacy)  unauthorized entry when gathering news in places where privacy is expected (homes, bathrooms, etc.)  forbids tech from trespassing as well (drones, tapped phones, etc.)  appropriation (i.e. people own the right to their own name and image)  false light (i.e. misrepresenting, distorting facts or images)  o Examples of invasion:  1982 Florida Newspaper­ man held his wife hostage in their home­ wife  comes out afterwards only being covered by a dish towel and was  photographed  woman lost the case because the event was newsworthy  Women comes out of fun house in Alabama and her dress is blown up as a photographer snapped a picture of her  Woman won because the ordeal was private and not newsworthy  House fire shows teenage boy’s body outline in a photograph on the front  page of a newspaper  Family won the case because it was private property and that  particular aspect wasn’t a public thing  Brad Pitt on vacation and was photographed nude in his hotel room  Pitt won because the hotel was private property  ABC undercover at Food Lion stores exposing improper meat handling  Food Lion sued for fraud and trespassing and won because it was  private property even though it was a business.  o Examples of appropriation:  Alyssa Milano’s pictures were used inappropriately for profit  Indian Actress, Khushboo, sued Maxim for photoshopping her head on a  model’s body o Examples of False Light:  Photo of a child right after being hit by a car used for a story about  pedestrian carelessness  Chic Thrills porn magazine publishing an article using a photo from a  woman’s pig act that wasn’t related to porn in any way. J397 Notes            Week 1  News station story on herpes using a photo from a crowded street and  zooming in on a specific woman   1967 bridge collapse­44 people were killed and a reporter wanted to  interview a victim’s wife but she wasn’t home so he talked to her children  and published false accusations  Speech violating other rights: o 1  Amendment vs. 6  Amendment  public has a right to know about actions of legal system and defendant’s  right to a fair trial  how to uphold both:  continuance­ a postponement or adjournment  sequestering­ isolate or hide away  change of venue­changing the location of the trial  admonition­ an act or action of admonishing; authoritative counsel  or warning  Example: Sam Sheppard Case (1954)  Wife was brutally murdered and Sam was accused  Newspapers sensationalized the trial: o “Getting Away with Murder” o false accusations and quotes  Sam was found guilty and was then acquitted after 12 years  Intellectual Property Rights o Copyright Infringement  Using or copying another’s work without consent and/or payment  Individual: lasts life of author +70 years  Corporation: lasts 95 years  Idea must be fixed­ has to be physical (written down)  Doesn’t need to carry the copyright sign o Examples:  Photographer’s picture used for another’s sculpture  Derivative because it was too close to the original  AP photographer’s picture of Obama was used to create and unofficial  campaign poster  The piece wasn’t transformative enough  Photographer posts pictures of friend with burrito on the grass and  McDonalds copied the idea with its ad campaign  McDonalds got rid of the ad campaign o Trademark Infringement  A word, symbol, or device represents a product or company  Examples: Coca Cola bottle, Xerox, Kleenex, etc.  Examples:  Park’s Sausage Links­ Ball Park’s “Park’s Best Hot Dogs o Different enough because of different product J397 Notes            Week 1  “Fair and Balanced” book title and “fair and balanced” used in a  sentence for something else o Because it was used in a larger sentence and for something  different Day 4 (10/6) Fair Use  Fair Use: o Comparative advertising o Fair criticism:  Parody­imitates the style of something for comic effect or criticism  Must not copy, but transform original work  Guiding idea: people must be able to comment and criticize ideas  Educators and researchers exception o 4 Factors:  the purpose of the new message (for criticism, ridicule, parody, and comic  effect)  the nature of the copyrighted work (the more creative the less you can use)  the amount of the copyrighter work used  the effect on the value of the copyrighted work o Examples:  Value City furniture ad­they’re the “smart price” compared to Ashley  Furniture (“not the smart price”)  Ashley sued for trademark and defamation and lost because is was  comparative fair use  1989 2LiveCrew created a parody of Roy Orbinson’s “Oh, Pretty Woman” Song­ they borrowed the first line of the song and the chord progression  only  the work was transformative and borrowed a small portion  Annie Leibovitz took a pregnant photo of Demi Moore and Paramount  photoshopped Leslie Neilsen's face on it for an ad.   The ads were completely different and was obviously a parody  New Yorker illustrator created a piece of work that was used as the cover  and mocked New York City for being “the center of the world” – Columbia Pictures “Moscow on the Hudson” used the same type of  illustration as a film production  Not fair use because they used his almost exact illustration and had the same message  Dr. Seuss’s “The Cat in the Hat” story and illustration was used for an OJ  Simpson trial parody  It wasn’t a true parody because it didn’t make fun of “The Cat in  the Hat”­ not fair use  Newsgathering Rights J397 Notes            Week 1  News is an essential element of a healthy democracy o Shield Laws (state level)  Reporters do not have to reveal anonymous sources  Judges however can compel reporters to reveal sources if they prove a  compelling need (greater good) o Sunshine Laws (state level)  Reporters have access to legislative public meetings o The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)  Requires federal agencies to list all their documents and provide them to  new agencies  o Example: Judith Miller going to jail for no revealing her sources


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