psyc 4039 week 7
psyc 4039 week 7 PSYC 4039
Popular in MADNESS AND MEDICINE
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4039 at Louisiana State University taught by A. Baumeister in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see MADNESS AND MEDICINE in Psychology (PSYC) at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) o Clinical/ descriptive method o First biological psychiatry (focus on neuroanatomy) ended because it failed to explain most mental illness and people lost interest Shorter implies Kraepelin brought it to an end. Not really true, although he had little interest in anatomic approach he was a strong advocate of somatogenic approach Doesn’t end biological psychiatry but shows a new way to look at mental illness Instead of taking the clinical- pathological approach of his contemporaries he turned to clinical observation and classification o His life: Received MD from Wurzburg Medical School 1878 Studied neuropathology in Leipzig under Flechsig Studies psychology under Wundt Pioneered pharmacopsychology Remainder of career devoted to clinical psychiatry Wrote textbook of psychiatry at age 27 (1883) 1890 took professorship in psychiatry at Heidelberg 1922 retired as head of the Research Institute of Psychiatry in Munich He had an eye problem so he couldn’t use a microscope; had a long standing interest in psychology. Hated Flechsig o Kraepelin’s descriptive psychiatry Life- history approach—not common at the time, now psychiatrists take this for granted. Basically just the life history of his patients to discover why they were suffering from mental illness Used course (how it unfolds overtime), outcome (patient either got better or got worse), and system complexes (syndrome) as basis for classification Basically he watches how the disease unfolds, and how it ultimately ends in order to classify the mental disorder 1893 edition of his textbook contained “Psychic Processes of Degeneration” on category of which was “Dementia Praecox” (the old name for what we call schizophrenia) 1899 6 edition divided functional psychoses into 2 groups Manic-depressive illness Dementia praecox (hebephrenic, catatonic, paranoid) Digression: Bleuler describes 2 onset patterns of schizophrenia circa 1910, and coins term “schizophrenia” Schizophrenia onset patterns: Anticipating Kraepelin o Morel describes a case of demence precoce (1852) o Hecker describes hebephrenia (1871) Developmental onset Progressive course o Kahlbaum Advocated clinical descriptive method Introduced concept of symptom complexes (syndrome) Symptom complex: intermediate between nosology based on single symptoms and “unitary psychosis model” Describes catatonia (1874) o Aretaeus (1 century AD) recognized bipolar disorder o Falret and Baillarger, circular insanity (ca. 1850) Kraepelin’s contributions o Credited with establishing the bases of modern psychiatry diagnosis; DSM is often said to be Kraepelin (categorical) o Credited with popularizing “clinical/descriptive method” o Mental illness can be better understood through longitudinal study of symptoms of larger numbers of cases o Pioneered detailed study of mental function o Credited with dividing functional psychoses into 2 groups: dementia praecox (schizophrenia) and manic depressive illness o He differentiated these types primarily be their course and outcome o Put schizophrenia and bipolar disorder at center of asylum psychiatry NERVES VERSUS MADNESS: THE RISE OF THE MINOR MENTAL ILLNESSES George Cheyne: wrote The English Malady (1733) o Summary: This is a disorder that is characteristically British that is not seen as a positive thing. Still has the Hippocratic idea—blames mental illness on the weather, their food, and the abundance of the inhabitants. Sees it as a source of pride Neuroses o Term coined in 1785 by Cullen o Comes from neuritis—inflammation of nerve o Original meaning—disorder due to undetectable disturbance of nerves o So, neuroses were originally the domain of neurologists o Famous Neurologists: Charcot Founder of modern neurology Linked neuropathology to clinical symptoms I multiple sclerosis; described Lou Gehrig’s disease (aka, ALS and Charcot’s syndrome) Pioneered study of hysteria and use of hypnosis o Hysteria: excess emotionality, especially in women, that was often associated with physical symptoms o Charcot thought that hysteria was caused by a disease in the nervous system o By the end of his career he believed neuroses to be psychogenic o Influenced by Franz Anton Mesmer who believed that natural energetic transfer- called animal magnetism- occurred between people and had healing power; technique for such transfer came to be called hypnosis; he used both hypnosis and magnets for treatment of mental illness o Charcot used hypnosis primarily as a diagnostic tool Beard Mitchell Freud The advantage of having a nervous disorder o Although, as originally conceived, “neuroses” were a different set of disorders than psychoses; but, the term became a euphemism for all mental illness- the reasons: Neuroses were often treated outside the asylum (e.g., spas) They were less strongly associated with heredity and degeneration Treated initially by neurologists who were less feared than physicians