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by: Kulani Purkey


Kulani Purkey

GPA 3.4

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About this Document

These notes cover material that was discussed in the fifth week of class.
Intro to Interpersonal Communication
Jenny Farrell
Class Notes
communication, Intro to Communication, Communications, Lecture Notes, Interpersonal, interpersonal communication
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kulani Purkey on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COM 102 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Jenny Farrell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Intro to Interpersonal Communication in Communication Studies at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.


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Date Created: 10/09/16
Maroon = Study goals Pink = Noteworthy sentences/concluding quotations COM102 with Prof. Jenny Farrell Blue = Prompting questions/thinking statements WEEK FIVE – SEPTEMBER 27, 2016 Yellow = Key terminology/vocabulary Elite Notetaker: Kulani Purkey CHAPTER FIVE: UNDERSTANDING CULTURE At the end of these notes, you should be able to identify what culture is, the different categories and sub-categories within a culture, how culture effects communication, and relating to one another despite different cultural beliefs and backgrounds . Culture is an established coherent set of beliefs, attitudes, values, and practices widely shared by a group of people. - Race, nationality, age, sex and sexual orientation can be considered a part of culture . - Culture varies across generations. 1. Culture is learned. a. It is learned through family, friends, media, television and etc. 2. Culture is communicated. a. It is communicated through the language used and non- verbal communication that can apply. 3. Culture is layered. a. We tend to identify with multiple cultures at once. 4. Culture is lived. a. Cultural influence plays out how we live our lives. CO-CULTURES 1. Co-cultural communication theory: people that have more power determine the dominant culture in society because they decide prevailing views, values and traditions of the society (straight, rich and white males) 2. Co-cultures are members of a society who do not conform their own cultures that dominant cultures; they often form their own cultures that co-exists within the dominant culture sphere. a. For example, the U.S. can have multiple co-cultures that exist within the dominant culture sphere, such as: women, LGBTQ and etc. b. They tend to have their own websites, TV channel s, and magazines. 3. Assimilation is when a co-culture attempts to be adopted by a dominant culture a. Co-cultures might want to be accommodated or separated from the dominant culture. b. Our perceptions of cultural affiliations can lead to in-grouper and out-grouper classifications. c. Are stereotypes good or bad? What stereotypes are good/bad and why? d. A risk with this is when you classify that someone is not like you. It causes you to be exclusive and it might not be an accurate reflection of who you really are. When stereotypes are a reflection of attitudes and rigid views of people, it turns in to prejudice. e. This can vary depending if the stereotype is positive or negative. 4. The stereotype content model is when prejudice centers on two judgements about others: a. How warm and lively they are and b. How competent they are. i. The term competent is referring to their ability to do something. - These combinations create two types of prejudice.. a. Benevolent prejudice is thinking of others as inferior but friendly and competent . i. In this type of prejudice, it is common to look down on someone and be egotistical if sympathetically involved. b. Hostile prejudice is an outward expression when people have attitudes toward another group based off of race, religion, ideology, country, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity and etc. i. This can be referred to as the root of every “ -ism”. Just because you don’t treat them with prejudice, doesn’t mean that you are not prejudice. - This is often rooted in your negative beliefs about people. 5. What if it happens to you? a. Try not to assume that everyone is prejudiced or like that. b. Prejudice breeds prejudice, it is a negative cycle and you’re feeding in to it. CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON COMMUNICATION 1. Individualistic cultures emphasize individual goals and needs over others ’. a. In an individualistic culture, you are valuing and prioritizing the individual (or the “I”). 2. Collectivistic cultures emphasize belonging to a group and the good of the group that rewards your loyalty. a. In a collectivistic culture, you value group harmony and tend to see a pooling income or many members of one family living under one roof. Uncertainty avoidance is how much a culture tolerates and accepts unpredictability. 1. High uncertainty avoidance cultures place a lot of value on control, uncomfortable with unusual ideas and value rules, structure and clear expectations (especially in a work place). a. They prefer to avoid uncertainty and resistance to change. b. This is often seen in countries such as Mexico, South Korea and Japan. 2. Low uncertainty avoidance cultures emphasize letting the future come without trying to control it, care less about rules, tolerate diverse ideas or viewpoints, and welcome change and new ideas. a. They do not try to avoid uncertainty Power distance is how people view the unequal distribution of power within a culture . 1. High power-distance cultures view power distance as positive and desirable (authoritarian). a. Status is important and expects others to abide by place based on status and treating those in power as important. b. They typically will not challenge authority. 2. Low power-distance cultures strive to minimize power distance between people (equality). a. There is less emphasis on status and are more personable amongst class and more comfortable challenging authority or speaking out. CONTEXT 1. High-context cultures value context, presume that other people shape their perspective and perceive contexts in the sameway. a. In high-context cultures, they tend to rely on indirect forms of communication, silence, non verbals and context to convey meaning (assuming that the other person will respond in context), and it is usually easy to offend them. b. This is often seen in countries such as Japan, China and Korea. 2. Low-context cultures try not to presume that others share their perspective. a. In low-context cultures, they tend to be more direct, informative and clear when conveying meaning. b. Say what you mean, mean what you say; openly express opinions and try to convince others. c. In these types of cultures, there is usually a common theme of individualism. d. Countries that tend to be low-context cultures are the United States and Germany. EMOTION DISPLAYS 1. Display rules are guidelines for when, where and how to manage emotional displays appropriately. a. We are taught this which is why we assume it is natural. b. This is a reason why it might be weird for people in other cultures to express happiness/sadness or other related emotions differently from you. 2. Feminine cultural values: compassion and cooperation a. There is an emphasis on caring for the weak, underprivileged and establishing a collectivistic culture. b. A country that is often related to this is Sweden. 3. Masculine cultural values: material wealth and indication of success, assertiveness and personal achievement a. Competition and winning against others is valued. b. Countries that are often related to masculine cultural va lues are Japan and Italy. TIME Chronemic is the way you use time to communicate messages. - The way you refer to or set up aspects of how you refer to time, such as “I don’t have time for this” or “I’ll try to make the time this week to call you”. 1. M-time (monochromic): focuses primarily on the careful use of time management and scheduling; this is common in the U.S. 2. P-time (polychromic): time is flexible and fluid. a. Things happen when they happen which makes it hard for an M -timer to flow with a P-timer. CREATING INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE Intercultural competence is the ability to communicate appropriately, effectively and ethically with people from diverse backgrounds. 1. World-mindedness: acceptance and respect toward other cultures, beliefs, values and customs a. This causes you to avoid ethnocentrism – which is the belief that your cultural beliefs, attitudes and values are superior to another i. To avoid ethnocentrism, check your perception and practice empathy. 2. Attributional complexity: acknowledging that other peoples’ behaviors have complex causes 3. Communication accommodation theory: people are motivated to adapt communication when.. a. Seeking social approval, b. Seeking to establish a relationship, and when c. Viewing others’ communication as appropriate. i. We accentuate differences to create distance.. 4. Embrace the distance.. a. It’s natural to perceive distance. b. Differences do not mean that there has to be distance between you and another person. c. Try to pull others closer and reap the benefits from becoming more intercultural competent.


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