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Life 102, Ch. 9 notes

by: Bridget Kelly

Life 102, Ch. 9 notes Life 102

Bridget Kelly
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Attributes of Living Systems
Jennifer L Neuwald
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Kelly on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Life 102 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Attributes of Living Systems in Biology at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 10/09/16
Tuesday, October 4, 2016 Cellular Respiration Chapter 9 We get our energy from food - food is made out of molecules Glucose - main molecule we are breaking sown to get energy C6H 12O 6+ 6O 2+ 6H O +energy (ATP, heat) G: +686 Kcal/mol -686 Kcal/mol Transfer of electrons between atoms Na + Cl Na+ + Cl- Oxidation Reduction (“REDOX”) Reactants - Oxidation - losing an electron - Oxidizer - atom gaining an electron - Oxidized - use to be the reductant (lost electron) - Reductant - atom losing an electron - Reduction - gaining an electron - Reduced - use to be the oxidizer (gained electron) Lose Electron = Oxidation LEO Gain Electron = Reduction GER Periodic Table: - High Potential Energy Low Potential Energy - Low Electronegativity High Electronegativity The Great Oxidizer - Oxygen (but other atoms are also oxidizers) 1 Tuesday, October 4, 2016 Intermediate Electron Acceptors 1. Glucose 2. NAD+ (coenzyme) 3. Electron Transport Chain Proteins - Where vast majority of our electron transport occurs and where most ATP is released 4. Oxygen - All catalyzed by enzymes Step 1: Glycolysis - energy - takes place in the cytosol - Goals: 1. ATP Synthesis 2. NAHD Synthesis 3. Pyruvate - product 2 Tuesday, October 4, 2016 Substrate-level Phosphorylation - a metabolic reaction that results in the formation of ATP by the direct transfer and donation of a phosphate group to ADP Phosphorylation - taking in a phosphate group Step 2: “Pre”-Citric Acid Cycle - takes place in the mitochondrial matrix - Pyruvate oxidation to produce Acetyl CoA Step 2: Citric Acid Cycle (kerbs Cycle) - takes place in the mitochondrial matrix - Goals: 1. ATP synthesis 2. NADH synthesis (oxidize the heck out of Acetyl - CoA) - Yields: 1. 3 NADH 2. 1 FADH 2 3. 1 ATP *Malate is oxidized into Oxaloacetate which is the product but it stays in cycle 3 Tuesday, October 4, 2016 Stage 3: Oxidative Phosphorylation - final reduction step in Oxidative Phosphorylation is when O 2 is reduced - takes place in the inner mitochondrial Membrane A. electron transport chain - electrons move up electronegativity 4 Tuesday, October 4, 2016 - NADH and FADH 2 • oxidized - Proteins • reduced and then oxidized - NADH electrons = higher energy - FADH 2 electrons = lower energy B. Chemiosmosis - ATP synthesis - electrochemical gradient driven by the electron transport chain - **ATP synthase VERY IMPORTANT • protein • responsible for the synthesis of vast majority of ATP • works like a water wheel - molecular rotary motor • catalytic knob - ADP + P ATP • phosphorylating • yields approximately 28 ATP From one molecule of Glucose… approximately 32 ATP molecules Cellular Respiration C6H12O 6+ 6O 26CO 2+ 6H 2O + Energy G Cellular Respi= -686 Kcal/mol G ATP Synthe= +7.3 Kcal/mol X32 (# of ATP molecules produced) = 233.6 Kcal/ mol 5 Tuesday, October 4, 2016 - 66% from the reaction is released as heat - cellular respiration is more than just glucose - Where does glucose come from? - Photosynthesis - No Oxygen? 1. Anaerobic Respiration - sulfur replaces oxygen as electron acceptor - H2S instead of H 2O 2. Fermentation A. Alcohol - yeast, bacteria - acetaldehydrate goes back into cycle and is reduced to ethanol B. Lactid Acid - yogurt, cheese, exercise - “normal” glycolysis - pyruvate goes back into recycle and is reduced to lactate 6


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