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BSCI 201: Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 5 Part 1 Notes

by: mehrnazighani Notetaker

BSCI 201: Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 5 Part 1 Notes BSCI201

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Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 5 (Integumentary System) Notes Part 1
Human Anatomy and Physiology 1
Justicia Opoku-Edusei
Class Notes
Skin, integument, Integumentary System, anatomy, Physiology, Science, Biology, Chemistry, sweat, glands, Sebaceous Glands, Hair, Anatomyandphysiology, cells, skincancer, burns, melanin, melanoma, keratinocytes, carotene, Hemoglobin
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by mehrnazighani Notetaker on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSCI201 at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Justicia Opoku-Edusei in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.


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Date Created: 10/09/16
BSCI 201: Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 5 (Integumentary System) Notes- Part 1 by Mehrnaz Ighani . Integumentary system consists of: ­ Skin ­ Hair ­ Nails ­ Sweat glands ­ Sebaceous (oil) glands . Skin consists of 2 distinct regions: (Fig. 5.1) 1. Epidermis: superficial region that’s avascular 2. Dermis: underlies epidermis that consists of mostly fibrous connective tissue and is vascularized ­ Hypodermis (superficial fascia): . subcutaneous layer deep to skin . mostly adipose tissue that absorbs shock and insulates . anchors skin to underlying structures: mostly muscle . Cells of the epidermis: ­ Epidermis consists mostly of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium ­ 4 types of cells found in epidermis: 1. Keratinocytes: . produce fibrous keratin which gives skin its protective properties . major cells of epidermis . tightly connected by desmosomes . millions slough off everyday 2. Melanocytes: . spider shaped cells located in deepest epidermis . produce pigment melanin, which is packaged into melanosomes . melanosomes are transferred to keratinocytes where they protect nucleus from UV damage 3. Dendritic (Langerhans) cells: . star shaped macrophages that patrol deep epidermis (key activators of the immune system) 4. Tactile (Merkel) cells: . sensory receptors that sense touch . Epidermis is made up of 4 to 5 layers (strata): ­ Thick skin consists of 5 layers and is found in high abrasion areas (hands, feet) ­ Thin skin consists of 4 layers . 5 layers of skin: (from deepest to the most superficial) 1. Stratum basale 2. Stratum spinosum 3. Stratum granulosum 4. Stratum lucidum (only in thick skin) 5. Stratum corneum . Stratum basale: ­ Deepest of all epidermal layers ­ Firmly attached to dermis ­ Consists of a single row of stem cells that actively divide (mitotic), producing 2 daughter cells each time . one daughter cell journeys from basal layer to surface taking 25-45 days to reach surface . other daughter cell remains in stratum basale as a stem cell ­ Layer that is also known as stratum germinativum b/c of active mitosis ­ 10-25 % of layer also composed to melanocytes . Stratum spinosum (prickly layer): ­ Several layers ­ Cells contain web-like system of intermediate pre-keratin filaments attached to desmosomes . allows them to resist tension and pulling ­ Keratinocytes in this layer appear spikey so they are called prickle cells ­ Scattered among keratinocytes are abundant melanosomes and dendritic cells . Stratum granulosum (granular layer): ­ 4-6 layers thick, but cells are flattened so layer is thin ­ Cell appearance changes; transitional stratum . cells flatten, nuclei and organelles disintegrate . keratinization begins  Cells accumulate keratohyaline granules that help form keratin fibers in upper layers  cells also accumulate lamellar granules, a water resistant glycolipid that slows water loss ­ cells above this layer die b/c they’re too far from dermal capillaries . Stratum lucidum (clear layer): ­ found only in thick skin ­ consists of thin, translucent band of 2-3 rows of clear, flat, dead keratinocytes ­ lies superficial to the stratum granulosum . Stratum corneum: ­ 20-30 rows of flat, anucleated, keratinized dead cells ­ Accounts for ¾ of epidermal thickness ­ Tough dead cells function to: . protect deeper cells from the environment . prevent water loss . protect from abrasion and penetration . acts as a barrier against biological, chemical, and physical assaults . Cells change by going through apoptosis (controlled cell death) ­ Dead cells slough off and dander ­ Humans can shed 50,000 cells every minute . Dermis: (Fig. 5.3) ­ Strong, flexible connective tissue ­ Cells include fibroblasts, macrophages, and occasionally white blood cells and mast cells ­ Fibers in matrix bind body together ­ Contains nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels ­ Contains hair follicles, oil glands, and sweat glands ­ 2 layers: 1. Papillary layer 2. Reticular layer . Papillary layer: o Superficial layer of areolar connective tissue consisting of loose, interlacing collagen and elastic fiber ad blood vessels o Loose fibers allow phagocytes to patrol microorganisms o Dermal papillae: superficial region of dermis that sends fingerlike projections up into epidermis o Projections contain capillary loops, free nerve endings, and touch receptors (tactile corpuscles, also called Meissner’s corpuscles) o In thick skin, dermal papillae lie on top of dermal ridges, which give rise to epidermal ridges (Fig. 5.4a) . collectively ridges are called friction ridges which:  Enhance gripping ability  Contribute to sense of touch  Sweat pores in ridges leave unique fingerprint pattern . Reticular layer: o Makes up to 80% of dermal thickness o Consists of coarse, dense fibrous (irregular) connective tissue o Many elastic fibers provide stretch- recoil properties o Collagen fibers provide strength and resiliency . bind water, keeping skin hydrated o Extracellular matrix contains pockets of adipose cells o Cleavage (tension) lines in reticular layer are caused by many collagen fibers running parallel to skin surface (Fig. 5.4b) . important to surgeons b/c incisions parallel to cleavage lines heal more readily o Flexure lines of reticular layer are dermal folds at or near joints (Fig. 5.4c) . dermis is tightly secured to deeper structures . skin’s inability to slide easily for joint movement causes deep creases . visible on hands, wrists, fingers, soles, toes . Extreme stretching of skin can cause dermal tears, leaving silvery white scars called striae, aka stretch marks . Acute, short term traumas to skin can cause blisters, fluid filled pockets that separate epidermal and dermal layers . 3 pigments contribute to skin color: 1. Melanin: . only pigment made in skin; made by melanocytes  Packages into melanosomes that are sent to keratinocytes to shield DNA from sunlight  Sun exposure stimulates melanin production . 2 forms: reddish yellow to brownish black . all humans have the same # of keratinocytes, so color differences are due to amount and form of melanin . freckles and pigmented moles are local accumulations of melanin 2. Carotene: . yellow to orange pigment . most obvious in palm and soles . accumulates in stratum corneum and hypodermis . can be connected to vitamin A for vision and epidermal health 3. Hemoglobin: . pinkish hue of fair skin is due to lower levels of melanin . in Caucasians the color of hemoglobin shows through . Excessive sun exposure damages skin ­ Elastic fibers clump, causing skin to become leathery ­ Can depress immune system and cause alterations in DNA that may lead to skin cancer ­ UV light destroys folic acid . necessary for DNA synthesis so insufficient amount is especially dangerous for developing embryos ­ Photosensitivity is increased reaction to sun . some drugs and perfumes cause photosensitivity leading to photosensitivity . Alterations in skin color can indicate diseases: 1. Cyanosis: blue skin color, low oxygenation of hemoglobin 2. Erythema (redness): fever, hypertension, inflammation, allergy 3. Pall or (blanching or pale color): anemia, low blood pressure, fear, anger 4. Jaundice (yellow cast): liver disorders 5. Bronzing: inadequate steroid hormones or very high levels of iron (such Addison’s disease) 6. Bruises: clotted blood beneath skin Works Cited Lindsey, Jerri K., Katja Hoehn, and Elaine Nicpon Marieb. Human Anatomy & Physiology, 9th            Edition Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn. Boston, MA: Pearson, 2013. Print.


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