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by: Kulani Purkey


Kulani Purkey

GPA 3.4

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About this Document

These notes cover what was discussed in the sixth week of class.
Intro to Interpersonal Communication
Jenny Farrell
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kulani Purkey on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COM 102 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Jenny Farrell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro to Interpersonal Communication in Communication Studies at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.

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Date Created: 10/09/16
Maroon = Study goals Pink = Noteworthy sentences/concluding quotations COM102 with Prof. Jenny Farrell Blue = Prompting questions/thinking statements WEEK SIX – OCTOBER 4, 2016 Yellow = Key terminology/vocabulary Elite Notetaker: Kulani Purkey CHAPTER SIX: LISTENING ACTIVELY At the end of these notes, you should be able to identify what the difference between hearing and listening is, the process that entails actively listening, different patterns of listening, and positive and negative listening habits. Listening is the FIRST communication skill developed in life. - It is a primary skill. - It is the most frequent communication skill we use in adult life and often a skill we take for granted. - Listening can be improved to serve our own interests and relationships. - Race, nationality, age, sex and sexual orientation can be considered a part of culture. - Culture varies across generations. - One of the biggest complaints of partners in relationships is not listening. - Listening is a process that involves receiving, attending to, understanding, responding to and recalling sounds and visual images during interpersonal encounters. - An acronym to remember the steps of and process of listening is RAURR: 1. Receiving 2. Attending 3. Understanding 4. Responding 5. Recalling RECEIVING involves seeing and hearing. - Hearing is the process where sound travels through the ear, to the ear drum and to the brain for interpretation. - Noise pollution can hamper out ability to receive sound and can lead to hearing impairment. ^ As many as 40% of college students have some kind of hearing impairment. ATTENDING is devoting attention to information we receive. 1. We tend to pay attention to salient information. 2. You can improve your attention by noting your attention level, figuring out when you should listen most carefully, raise your attention level to take in the information you’re receiving and try not to not be problematic. (This helps to boost salience and control noise). 3. Mental bracketing: a means of systematically putting aside thoughts that are not relevant to the interaction at hand (internal noise). a. This helps you focus on what is in front of you. UNDERSTANDING is interpreting meaning by comparing new information to past knowledge. - New information is housed in your short-term memory to be compared against your long term memory. What do you remember for the immediate that should be remembered for the long-term.. You can make a conscious decision to transfer it over. RESPONDING is communicating attention and understanding to the speaker. 1. This lets them know that you are actually listening through feedback. a. Feedback: communicating attention and understanding while others are talking (this happens in real time; in the moment) i. Positive feedback supports the speaker’s confidence. ii. Negative feedback is disruptive to the speaker. b. Back-channel cues signal that you are paying attention. i. These can be verbal or non-verbal. Examples include: eye contact, nodding, agreeing through conversation fillers, facial expressions, gestures and etc. ii. Keep in mind to make it obvious for them to pick up the cues, make them appropriate, be quick in response and avoid misinterpretation of negative feedback. Level of responses need to be appropriate to what they are saying.. Even if you’re not trying to give someone negative feedback, the things that you do OR do not do could cause someone to feel a certain way. c. Negative feedback: checking your watch, looking at your phone, breaking eye contact repeatedly or wearing headphones d. Clarifying is a type of positive feedback. i. It is when you summarize what they say and engages perception checking. ii. Re-stating their points helps show your desire to understand but can cause lapses in the conversation complexion with your own comments. RECALLING is remembering information. 1. Bizarreness effect is when we recall the strange and unusual easier than the normal/regular. a. Mnemonics help because of their odd characteristics. b. To increase recall accuracy, use all five senses when listening, take notes, draw diagrams and reduce complex information to simple sayings or symbols. CONNECTING CONCEPTS - Fundamental differences in perception and identity can affect our decision to listen. - Preconceived attitudes about others can influence all steps of the listening process. Sometimes we make it harder than it actually is, it’s all about perception of the circumstances. LISTENING STYLES 1. Action-oriented: listening to make an immediate response a. This consists of brief and to the point messages and is often found in the medical field or similar fields. 2. Time-oriented: focused on how much time you have to listen a. For instance, only having five minutes to talk. 3. People-oriented: an opportunity to establish a relationship with others a. An example of this is listening to truly get to know someone. 4. Content-oriented: focusing on the actual message to learn or challenge yourself a. To do this, one can attend a guest lecture or workshop with an interest in the topic going to be discussed. - Most of us only use two styles. Depending on the situation, we should strive to use all four or it can result as being perceived as an incompetent communicator. Consider the appropriateness of the style you choose to use. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN LISTENING STYLES 1. Women are more likely to use people or content-oriented styles. a. If she seeks a certain response, she might not tell her boyfriend or spouse about it, but instead say something like: “Let me go call my girlfriend who’s going to actually give me the response I want to hear!” 2. Men are more likely to use the time and action-oriented styles. INEFFECTIVE LISTENING - There are several common bad practices while listening. - An active listener should take steps to avoid using ineffective types of listening. - In a collectivistic culture, listening more carefully and closely is more commonly seen. 1. Selective listening is taking in bits and pieces of information and dismissing the rest. a. This is due to fluctuating attention. 2. Pseudo-listening is pretending to pay attention when you really are not. a. We often do this to avoid hurting someone’s feelings. b. If you make this a habit, you will come off as being dishonest.


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