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Life 102, Ch. 10 notes

by: Bridget Kelly

Life 102, Ch. 10 notes Life 102

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Biology > Life 102 > Life 102 Ch 10 notes
Bridget Kelly
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Attributes of Living Systems
Jennifer L Neuwald
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Kelly on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Life 102 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Attributes of Living Systems in Biology at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 10/09/16
Saturday, October 8, 2016 Photosynthesis Chapter 10 All life on earth is solo powered from the sun - photoautotrophs - organisms that use photosynthesis to make their own food - Heterotrophs - get energy through eating, cant synthesize Plant cells do work, plant cells use Cellular Respiration C 6H12O 6+ 602 6CO 2+ 6H 2O + Energy *Oxygen comes from water Photosynthesis: 6CO 2+ 12H 2O + Sun C 6H12O 6+ 6CO 2 + 6H2O Electromagnetic Energy - shorter wave length = high energy - longer wave length = lower energy - wave lengths can be… • transmitted • absorbed • reflected - color of something represents the wave length reflected 1 Saturday, October 8, 2016 Chlorophyll = pigment of photosynthesis - three types of pigments • chlorophyll a • chlorophyll b • carotenoids Light Energy Chemical Energy 1. Different wavelengths of light have different energy A. chlorophyll electrons in ground state B. chlorophyll electrons absorb photons energy - electrons in higher shells have more energy C. chlorophyll electrons are in excited state (electron move up a shell) D. chlorophyll electrons fall back to ground state (electron move down shell) E. chlorophyll electrons release energy F. energy captured by biochemical light reactions 2. Photons excite electrons, thus transferring energy Stage 1: The Light Reactions 2 Saturday, October 8, 2016 - Goal: convert energy from sun into high-energy electrons - Input: light, water, ADP, NADP+ - Output: ATP, NADPH, O 2 - photosystem - electron moves to PEA (Primary Electron Acceptor) - chlorophyll is oxidized - Photosystem 2 • where electrons originate and replenish - Photosystem 1 • electron transport chain - P2 oxidized, P1 reduced - ATP and NADPH created in storm of chloroplasts - Linear Electron Flow • where do the electrons come from? - H 2O - P680 - most electronegative atom we know • the greatest oxidizer - more then O 2 State 2: The Calvin Cycle (The dark reactions) 3 Saturday, October 8, 2016 - Input: ATP, NADPH, CO 2 - Output: NADP+, ADP, G3P - 3 phases - Goal of phase 1: Carbon Fixation • the incorporation of CO 2into organic molecules (x3) - Goal of phase 2: Reduction Phase • transfer electrons from the light reactions • to make sugar! • G3P = 1/2 glucose - Goal of phase 3: The Regeneration • rearrange the atoms to regenerate our starting regent (Ribulose Biphosphate) If no CO 2, then you die Stomata - pores in the leaf that permit gas exchange - can open and close - don’t stay open because they can lose water Low concentrations of CO ? - use O 2 - photorespiration - thought to be historical relic • releases CO 2 • use ATP Bad • but no sugar is made C3 Plants - 3 carbon molecule - fix CO 2 in a different way C4 Mesophyll Cells - concentrate CO 2 and “preps” it **Pep Carboxylase - important enzyme • greedy for CO 2 4 Saturday, October 8, 2016 • Carbon fixed into molecule CAM Plants - desert plants - during nights have stromates open to get CO 2but close during the day Carbon Fixation - involves the addition of carbon dioxide to RuBP To Know: 1. In light reactions, light energy is used to oxidize H2O to O 2 2. The electrons derived from this oxidation reaction in the light reactions are used to reduce NADP+ to NADPH 3. The Calvin Cycle oxidizes the light-reactions product NADPH to NADP+ 4. The electrons derived from this oxidation reaction in the Calvin Cycle are used to reduce CO 2 to G3P 5


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