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LS 1 Chapter 24 Notes

by: Daniel Ochs

LS 1 Chapter 24 Notes CHEM 14BL

Daniel Ochs

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Life Science 1 Chapter 24 Notes
General and Organic Chemistry Laboratory I
Class Notes
Life Science
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Popular in General and Organic Chemistry Laboratory I

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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daniel Ochs on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 14BL at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Casey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see General and Organic Chemistry Laboratory I in Chemistry and Biochemistry at University of California - Los Angeles.

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Date Created: 10/09/16
Wednesday, October 5, 2016 Friday, October 7, 2016 LS Week 2- Lecture 6 Chapter 24: Species Concepts and Speciation - How do we name species? • Scientists give every known organism a scientific name (always consistent) - Names capitalized and italicized • Naturalists give species a common name as well (not consistent) - What is a species? • No gene flow between species • Genetic differences between species • Mutation, selection, and drift act independently on species - What is a subspecies? • An organism similar to species but has enough differences to be classified by itself - Biological Species concept • Emphasizes variation and reproductive isolation - Must be reproductively compatible - Must produce viable, fertile offspring - Gene pool largest possible under natural condition - Reproductive Isolation • Gene flow homogenizes population • Isolating mechanisms - Pre-zygotic: before fertilization • Habit (Spatial) Isolation - Geographic (locations) or Ecological (niches) • Temporal Isolation - Different times = fertility or breeding seasons 1 Wednesday, October 5, 2016 Friday, October 7, 2016 • Behavioral Isolation - Mating Dances or Mating Calls • Gametic Isolation - Eggs and Sperm incompatible • Mechanical Isolation - Reproductive structures incompatible - Post-zygotic: after fertilization • Can mate & form a zygote, but - Offspring are less/not viable or are sterile • Isolating Mechanisms - Hybrid inability - Hybrid sterility - Hybrid breakdown with reduce fitness of the F 2 - Zygote: cell resulting from fusion of two gametes (fertilization) - Morphospecies Concept (Morphologic Species) • Members of the same species often look alike but not always • Members of different species can look similar but have chromosome differences - Evolutionary Species Concept (Phylogenetic) • Members of the same species share a common ancestry - Ecological Species Concept • Members of a species are characterized by ecological niche - One species per niche 2 Wednesday, October 5, 2016 Friday, October 7, 2016 LS Week 2- Lecture 7 Chapter 24: Species Concepts and Speciation - Speciation: processes that generate new species • Allopatric speciation: physical separation - Dispersal: individuals colonize a new area - Vicariance: new geographic barrier separates individuals • Sympatric speciation: together in same place reproductively isolated - Selection: natural selection based on ecological niches and matte preference - Polyploidy: instantaneous change in number of chromosomes of genetic material - Hybridization: • Two populations that were previously separated come back with one another • Reproductive isolation has not been established • At the limit of each species distribution there is sometimes interbreeding in a population 3


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