Week 7 - Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I: Lecture Notes
Week 7 - Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I: Lecture Notes PHCL 2600
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Audrey Hernandez on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHCL 2600 at University of Toledo taught by Dr. Frederick Williams in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology in Biology at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 7 Lecture Notes Introduction to the Nervous System ❖ There are two divisions ➢ Central Nervous System (CNS) ■ Consists of only the brain and the spinal cord ➢ Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) ■ Consists of everything outside of the central nervous system ■ Also has cranial nerves and spinal nerves ● Cranial nerves ◆ There are 12 pairs that are connected to the brain ● Spinal nerves ◆ There are 31 pairs that are connected to the spinal cord ◆ Afferent ➢ Unipolar ➢ Located in the dorsal root ➢ Takes information into CNS ◆ Efferent ➢ Multipolar ➢ Located in the ventral root ➢ Takes information into PNS ❖ More on the PNS ➢ Has two sub branches ■ Somatic ● Afferents focus on sensory aspects ● Efferents directly link the CNS to skeletal muscle ■ Automatic ● Afferents pass information pertaining to internal organs ● Efferents link CNS with smooth muscled ❖ More on CNS ➢ Brain ■ Consists of white matter and gray matter ● White matter contains mostly myelinated axons ◆ The “conducting center” ● Gray matter contains mostly unmyelinated axons ◆ The “processing center” ◆ “H” shape around spinal cord ➢ Layers supporting the CNS ■ Bony outer layers Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 7 Lecture Notes ● Like the skull, vertebrae, and intervertebral discs ◆ The skull works isolate and protect the brain ◆ The vertebral column consists of 26 vertebrae that protect the spinal cord ◆ Intervertebral discs separate the vertebral, preventing grinding and absorbing shock ■ Meninges ● Are layers of membrane ● Like the dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater ◆ The dura mater is the thickest of the three and tends to be near bone ➢ Three structures created by this include the sickle shaped alx cerebri (an extension of it is called the falx cerebelli), and the entorium cerebelli (which makes a tent shape covering the cerebellum) ◆ The arachnoid is thin and weblike and is in between the two other layers ➢ There is a space between the arachnoid and pia mater membranes known as the subarachnoid space ■ Filled with cerebral spinal fluid ■ Has structures called cristerns containing cerebral spinal fluid ■ Lumbar cristern is one of these structures located at the end of the spinal cord ◆ The pia mater is the thinnest layer of the three
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