HLTH 377: Human Sexuality Week 6 Notes
HLTH 377: Human Sexuality Week 6 Notes HLTH377
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Dassing on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HLTH377 at University of Maryland taught by Robin Sawyer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Health Sciences at University of Maryland.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Day 11: Safe Sex Cont'd Tuesday, October 4, 2016 11:22 AM I Why are only 39% of UMD students not sexually active? a Social media creates a baseline b Those that do it are vocal about it c 15-24 year olds are 50% of all new STI cases i 20 million STI's every year ii Due to: 1 Uneducated 2 Risk takers -- invincibility 3 Less access to resources II Safer Sex a Pep Prep Medication taken right Medication taken after (within 72 hours) every day if they're possible exposure high-risk of HIV b STI Weekend: 2 weeks - 3 months c Condoms break due to: i Stored improperly ii Put on improperly iii Not lubed properly II Group Work a Where does safer sex stigma and shame come from? i Unsexy conversation to have ii Comes from our peers iii Getting tested = dirty iv Social media -- rarely use condoms during sex scenes v Feels better without a condom vi Sex in general is shamed a Is it helpful or harmful to individual and community health? i Challenging the shame is helpful a What social norms around safer sex would be helpful to individual and community health? i Less sex = less chance of getting an STI Extra Credit Wednesday, October 5, 2016 7:45 PM I Sexual Orientation vs Gender Identity a Sexual Orientation: who a person is attracted to i Ex. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer b Gender Identity: how a person identifies in terms of gender i Ex. Transgender, queer II Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Asexual a Same-sex sexual behavior has a long history i Observed among animal species including dolphins, cattle, and penguins ii The variation in terminology decreased the usage of "homosexual" 1 1890's : the words "homosexual" and "homosexuality" established ; "lesbian" (adjective) a Originally created as a name for a disorder b Today, still considered a derogatory term 2 1915 : word "bisexual" established 3 1920's : the word "gay" and "lesbian" (noun) established b Sexual Orientation i Behavior is typically a result of attraction ii Pansexual: reject a man-woman binary of gender iii Asexual: lack sexual attraction to anyone or low interest in sexual activity b Reasoning for variation in sexual orientation is unclear i Not a casual choice ii Some evidence of a genetic component iii May change over time -- not due to therapy, which could cause psychological damage II Bisexual Stigma a Both IN and OUT of LGBTQ community b Perceptions include: i Bisexual is not a true sexual orientation ii Bisexuals are incapable of monogamy iii Bisexual are easily attracted to both men and women b Sexual orientation changing over time i Bisexuality is not a phase between same-sex and mixed-gender attraction ii Many people of all sexual orientations remain committed iii Many bisexual people are more strongly attracted to one gender over another -- not equal II Gender Identity: Sex, Gender and Identity a Transgender: how one identifies in terms of gender identity, which does not align with their sex assigned birth b Sex assigned at birth: physician looks at lower genitals and records only the physical appearance, male or female i Does not include: 1 Chromosomes 2 Internal sex organs 3 Brain structure ii If it is ambiguous, the term intersex is used iii More accurate to think of sex as a continuum between male and female -- rather than a binary b Gender Identity : who I am i Gender = women and man 1 Cultural differences : how we dress, the restroom we use, and some occupations ii Gender expression : how I appear b Cisgender : those whose gender identity and sex assigned sex at birth align i Describes the majority ii Unfortunate expectation that all people are iii Gives rise to the false notion that sex and ender are synonyms b Genderqueer, Non-binary, Trans, and others : how one identifies in terms of gender, which is nog aligned with their sex assigned birth c Agender: without gender i Emerging identity that for some falls under the transgender umbrella ii May stand outside the transgender/cisgender binary II Importance of Pronouns a ALWAYS use the pronouns someone asks you to use -- if you don’t know, ASK b Include: i She/her ii He/him iii Ze/hir iv They/them (singular) 1 Long history of meaning unknown gender II Intersections: Individuals as a complex combination of identities a Identity does not exist in isolation b Each aspect of identity develop alongside and have an impact on the other c Focus on identity because individual experience inequity or privilege in one area, including: i Race ii Gender iii Ethnicity iv Sexuality v Nationality vi Class vii Disability b Ex. Feminist Audre Lorde : black lesbian i Constantly encouraged to present herself in one aspect, while denying the rest of her self II Family & Parental Reactions: A wide variety of potential reactions a All parents react differently to their child coming out i Readily accept the news and provide support ii Some struggle iii May have period of adjustment in parent-child relationship b Some reactions include: i Self-Blame 1 Parents think it is their fault, due to bad parenting 2 May also worry that they will become targets of disapproval ii Loss and Mourning 1 Parents may have an expectation of their child with a future of a "normal" family life 2 Ex. Grandchildren ii Fear of Rejection 1 Feel as if child is rejecting parents by "choosing" LBGTQ 2 Afraid to lose child to LBGTQ communities ii Fear what they could imagine could happen to their child 1 Fear of physical harm 2 Fear of discrimination 3 Religious stigma b The better the parent-child relationship before disclosing coming out, the more likely a positive outcome will occur c Children tend to come out to the LGBTQ community, friends, and other family members, especially siblings, before their own parents d Most parents react with love and support, however a lot of parents still abandon their children -- 4-13 times more likely to experience homelessness II LGBTQ+ People and the LAW: Discrimination in employment and public accommodation a There is no federal law protecting LGBTQ+ people from discrimination in employment and public accommodation b Protection began in the 1950's and 1960's i Frank Kameny (1957), was dismissed for homosexuality from his position as an astronomer in the US Army's Map Service 1 Pursued civil rights claim -- lost ii Kamney and Barbara Gittings were first to picket lines protesting mistreatment -- picketed the White House and State Department in DC and PA b Stonewall -- 1969 in NYC i Stonewall Inn welcomed LGBTQ+ people ii Police regularly raided the establishment, due to laws against wearing clothing incongruent with their sex iii Pride events still held today to make to Stonewall riots b Anti-sodomy law -- completely disappeared in 2003 i If your LGBQT+ status were known, you were automatically suspected of criminal activity and denied an occupational license ii Rarely enforced directly, instead brand LGBTQ+ people as criminals b Local and state protections that vary considerably -- important factor for LGBTQ+ people in deciding where to live and work II Marriage Laws a Rights and responsibilities associated with legal marriage b 1980's -- LGBTQ+ organizations began to seek access to: i Healthcare ii Decision-making authority in emergency medical situations iii Disputes with estranged blood relatives over a deceased partner's estate iv Parenting of children raised in same-sex headed households b 1996 -- Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) i Prohibited the federal government from recognizing same-sex marriages even if legal in state b 2004 -- Massachusetts became first state to recognize marriages between same sex c 2013 -- same sex couples could marry in 16 states d June 2015 -- Obergefell v. Hodges -- US Supreme Court ruled same-sex couple had the same right to marry as mixed-ender couple i Still today, LGBTQ+ people can marry same-sex spouse and be legally fired the next day II Discrimination a Statistics show that discrimination against LGBTQ+ people is real and transgender people and LGBTQ+ youth are at greatest risk b Gender Identity i "Injustice at Every Turn" Study published in 2011 1 4x more likely to have household income less than $10,000/year compared to general population 2 Workplace discrimination a Most hide gender or gender transition from job b Some delay gender transition c Some experience an adverse job outcome -- fired, not being hired, denied promotion 2 Poor health care a 19% are refused medical care b 28% postpone medical care due to discrimination II LGBT Adults -- "Survey of LGBT Americans" 2013 a Perceptions of discrimination i Threatened or physically attacked b Unwelcomed at place of worship c Poor service in restaurant, hotel, place of business d Treated unfairly by an employer II LGBTQ+ Youth -- Gay, Lesbian, Straight Education Network (GLSEN) surveying K-12 people since 1999 , published 2013 a Missed one day of school during past month due to feeling unsafe or uncomfortable -- 30% b Missed four or more days in the past month -- 10% c Heard "that's so gay" in negative way-- 71% d Verbally harassed -- 74% e Physically harassed -- 36% f Physically assaulted -- 16% g Electronic harassment -- 49% h 56% of students who were harassed in school did not report the incident -- doubted intervention i 61% said school staff did nothing in response II Microaggressions : "Death By a Thousand Cuts" a Intent and impact are separate terms -- may commit microaggression without meaning to b Definition: commonplace, verbal, behavioral, or environment indignities that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative slights and insults against LGBTQ+ people i Can gain power from their invisibility ii Perpetrators may be unaware and intentioned, moral, and decent people -- still devastating impact b Taxonomy -- Classified Microaggressions i Problematics terminology 1 Derogatory words are still heard often, "that's so gay" 2 Misgendering someone is also insulting a Referencing someone by their sex assigned at birth even after telling you their gender identity is something different b Using he or she when they have stated that their pronouns are they/them ii Endorsement of normative behaviors 1 Heterosexual person tells someone not to "act gay in public" 2 Parent insists their child "dress like a girl" ii Exoticization 1 Treating LGBTQ+ people as "comedic relief" 2 Reacting to trans woman with "WOW, would have never guessed" 3 Referencing someone as your "gay best friend" 4 Asking a lesbian if she's ever had sex with a man 5 Asking a bisexual person if they are into threesomes ii Discomfort/disapproval 1 Starring at same-sex couple who are affectionate in public 2 When questioning the presence of a transgender person in a particular restroom ii Denial of general heterosexism and genderism, or trans-, bi-, an homophobia 1 LGBTQ+ person state hey have been discriminated against in some way and response is "you're just being too sensitive" ii Denial of personal heterosexism and genderism, trans-, bi-, and homophobia 1 Phrases like "some of my best friends are gay" always act as a way to deny personal prejudice or discrimination ii Assumption of pathology or abnormality 1 Negative stereotyping 2 Assumption that all LGBTQ+ people have HIV or other STI's 3 Transgender women are sex workers 4 Gay men are child molesters ii Physical threat or harassment 1 Many gay, lesbian, and bisexual people, and almost all transgender experience verbal harassment on regular basis, may include threat of violence ii Issues with family origin 1 Transgender people frequently struggle with family members who resist using proper pronouns, continue using birth name, and insist they dress in alignment with sex assigned at birth 2 Too many parents put their LGBTQ+ children out of the house ii Systemic and environmental microaggessions 1 Public restrooms 2 Interactions with criminal legal system 3 Health care -- especially emergencies 4 Official documents-- driver's license ii Denial of personal body privacy 1 Questions about genitalia 2 Questions about medical procedures 3 Any question about someone's body you would not ask a cisgender person II Health : Healthcare Problems of LGBTQ+ People a LGBTQ+ have higher health risks due to marginalization b 1980's : emergence of HIV/AIDS among gay men defined LGBTQ+ health in the mind of the general public c Areas impacted by marginalization: i Mental health ii Access to healthcare -- especially for transgender and bisexual individuals iii Appropriate care based on adequate research -- especially transgender individuals 1 Need more research a Suggestions of greater amounts of stress lead to higher risk of illnesses b Legalization of same-sex marriage in Massachusetts resulted in less medical care visits, mental care visits, and mental health care costs -- positive impact on mental health, due to removal of marginalization II Religion : LGBTQ+ people can live a religious life and many do a Religions may oppose: i Non-discrimination laws ii Fully inclusive anti-bullying school policies iii Marriage equality iv Adoption of children by same-sex couple b In fact, many LGBTQ+ people are involved in religious communities i Abrahamic groups, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism b Some communities embrace their LGBTQ+ members, while other look at it as a behavior of sin c Choosing Religion: i Some stay with the religion they were raised as ii Join a parallel organization with other similarly situated people 1 Ex. Dignity for Roman Catholics 2 Ex. Affirmation for Mormons ii Participate with a different religious community, sometimes one formed primarily for LGBTQ+ people 1 Ex. Metropolitan Community Church 2 Ex. Bet Mishpachah ii Experience their spirituality outside of any structured religious community iii Reject all organized religion -- atheist or agnostic b A non-LGBTQ+ person from a less accepting religious community may directly challenge the faith of an LGBTQ+ member i Common with Christian rhetoric and invoking the Christian Bible ii Some Christian communities fully embrace LGBTQ+ members II Media Representations : Impact and Accuracy a Currently there are more representations of LGBTQ+ people in the media i Who is included, where and how their stories are framed varies considerably ii Most LGBTQ+ images in the media include: male, white, upper or middle class, native English speaking individuals b Media deeply influences how we come to understand social groups i Ex. Caitlyn Jenner 1 Some frame her story as courageous 2 Other frame it as offensive, not noteworthy, or even resentful 3 Fully shapes people views of transgender people ii The media's representation is not an accurate depiction of the LGBTQ+ community b 50 years ago -- gay men in media portrayed as either comic relief or psychopaths II Parenting: Positive Outcomes of Children Raised in Same-Sex Headed Households a Children raised by same-sex and/or trans parents do as well developmentally as other children raised by 2 parents i Between 1-9 million children currently do b No basis for considering parental sexual orientation in decisions about their children's "best interest" c The differences that do exist include: i Less gender-stereotypical development ii Greater capacity to express feelings iii More empathy for social diversity iv More likely to encounter social prejudice b/c of parents sexual orientation Day 12: Hook up Culture Thursday, October 6, 2016 11:14 AM I Article a Hook-up : refers to a situation where 2 people are hanging out or run into each other at an event and they end up doing something sexual. A "hook- up" carries no expectation that either party has an interest in moving toward a relationship, although in some cases such an interest is present either before or after the hook up b Agree or disagree? i Hook ups are not always spontaneous but planned ii Such a vague term iii May or may not include sex iv Not always predetermined v Could mean nonsexual things -- hanging out vi Men and women are traditionalized differently vii Every person has their own definition -- very difficult to define b While there is no commitment.. i Most people had never hooked up with their most recent hookup before ii 20% hooked up with the last person 10+ times b Last hook-up went this far.. i Intercourse ii Kissing and non-genital touching iii Hang stimulating genitals iv Oral sex b "BIG line between oral sex and intercourse" i Intercourse includes risk of pregnancy ii Oral sex is about pleasing the other, while sex is about pleasing the self b Are hook-ups Gendered? YES i Initiation: who initiates sex 1 Men are more likely to initiate sex 2 Are men more eager? Or is it a consensual norm? a Girls can be shamed for acting sexually b Women are socialized to not want sex c Men are socialized to want sex d If women put themselves out there, it can be dangerous ii Orgasm gap: who has orgasm 1 Men are more likely to have an orgasm 2 Study: a Intercourse and Oral : men = 85% women = 49% b Intercourse c Oral sex d Hand stimulation 2 Why? a Lack of communication in hookups b In hook-ups, the intention is more is please the man 2 Men report that women have more orgasms than they actually did a Why? i Physical sign that men do, not for women ii Women pretend to make man feel good and once the male is done, mission accomplished iii Things feel good, just did not cum 2 Maybe an orgasm is not the best barometer of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, what could be added? a After survey i Debrief after sex, talk about what moments felt good and what could have been better b Level of foreplay c Emotional connection d Respect e Technical accomplishment - good technique f Relationship-specific skills - learned over time with same person g Commitment and affection - emotions h Gender equity - respect during sex 2 Why are men misinformed about their female partner's orgasms in hook-ups? a Social risk -- Women should not ask what feels good b Being drunk c Lack of communication d Women faking orgasms 2 As women get older or experienced, it is easier to express their sexual desires ii Sexual double standard : gender roles 1 Respect someone less after hookup, or feeling less respected afterwards 2 55% of women after hookup feel disrespected after hookup 3 22% of women respect men less after hookup b DTF and DTR : Defining the Relationship i Men are more likely to define the relationship conversation ii Interest in relationship before and after their most recent hookup 1 Increased chances of orgasm for women if they had interest before hookup 2 Slight increase if it's after hookup ii Are social pressures leading the 2 genders to report bias? 1 Women supposed to limit hookups to those they want a relationship -- women should consider relationship before hookup 2 Men supposed to be on the prowl and not get attached so they may not include their thoughts of relationships ii Does "partner learning" occur the same in 10+ hookups and relationships? 1 Yes, learning curve happens
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