Ochem Notes, Week 6
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Pratiti Ghosh-Dastidar on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 251 at Miami University taught by Dr. Gung in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry 1 in CHM at Miami University.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Pg-45 The presence of multiple Lewis Basic O atoms in the crown of ethers make them good for biding metal ions that are right size to fit in the ring: Related polycyclic compounds are called cryptands b/c the can tightly bind a metal and refuse to release it (like a crypt). These rings can contain N,O and S atoms: Curved Arrow Review Indicates movement of electrons in a chemical reaction Flow of electrons can be predicted by identifying Lewis acid and Base Pg – 46 o The rxn is exothermic when a stabilization of the species occurs as a result of the reaction Substitution reactions o nucleophile substitutes for a leaving group: o nucleophile is an electron rich species attached to cations Pg - 47 Equilibrium For reaction, o Equilibrium Constant given by o K is related to Gibbs Free energy Which determines if reaction occurs spontaneously or not o Entropy Related to freedom of movement. More freedom of movement is entropically favorable Less rigidity and more individual pieces have more degrees of freedom o Rates of relations Just because a reaction is thermodynamically favorable, doesn’t mean it necessarily proceeds at an appreciable rate. NOTE: The higher the temperature, the higher average kinetic energy of molecules in the system Pg -48 o Boltzmann distributions: Statistical distribution showing the average energy value at different temperatures. Only molecules w/ enough energy to overcome the barrier to reaction to react. Rate Constant o (K) it’s a fundamental property of given reaction at a specified temperature o S N1and SN2 reactions are specific examples of first order and second order reactions, respectively: Pg – 49 Transition State and Energy Barriers o Even a thermodynamically favorable reaction can be slow of the barrier of the reaction (activation energy) is high. Has a high Ex) Combination is v. favorable thermodynamically, but b/c of the high E if needs a spark of A energy to start the reaction.
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