KNES 400: Foundations of Public Health Week 6 Notes
KNES 400: Foundations of Public Health Week 6 Notes KNES 400
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Dassing on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KNES 400 at University of Maryland taught by Shannon Jette in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Public Health in Kinesiology at University of Maryland.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Built Environment as a Determinant of PA (I): Intro T erms Monday, October 3, 2016 11:14 AM I The Decline of Daily Movement a US walks the least of any industrialized nations i 10,000 steps suggested ii 5,117 steps/day b NHTS: # of vehicle trips and miles traveled per day i 1969: 2.32 trips and 20 miles ii 2001: 3.35 trips and 32 miles iii 2009: 3.02 trips and 29 miles b Why are we driving more? i More people live in suburbs, further from cities ii Limited jobs iii Housing prices iv Car as status symbol? v Walking engineered out of existence 1 Pedestrian a "speedbump" to the modern transportation/traffic engineer: modeling software treats pedestrian's as "statistical disturbance" - vehicle delay 2 Walking unsafe and inconvenient b How did this happen? i The birth of suburbia and the rise of car culture ii Suburban SPRAWLED : dominant form of development in the second half of the 20th century b In-Class Video i Model T - first automobile ii Middle class people iii Triangle: 1 Where we sleep 2 Where to shop 3 Where we work ii As more people bought cars, the more roadways built 1 Transporting military goods II Built Environment : Onto the Radar of PA and PH late 1990's a Epidemiological data shows health benefits of moderate activity (including walking) 30 minutes, five or more days per week b Physical activity is not just "exercise and sport" but can be attained through ACTIVE LIVING i Better for health AND environment b Obesogenic Environment: the sum of influences that the surroundings, opportunities, or conditions of life have on promoting obesity in individuals or populations i Considers aesthetics, cleanliness, crime and safety II Active Living from eyes of researcher a Regional considerations: i Identifiable urban edges: Ex urban growth boundaries ii "Infill" Development : building necessary resources iii Alternative modes of transportation 1 Ex. Bike trails b Neighborhood considerations i Density 1 High density: multi-family developments 2 Low density: big land mass, single unit family homes ii Land-use mix : degree to which commercial, residential, retail and industrial businesses are intermixed 1 "Sprawl" neighborhood: separation of land use into monofunctional zones, single use zoning 2 "Traditional" neighborhood: walkable; encourages residents to achieve daily activities without use of car ii Street connectivity: how easy it is to get from point A to point B iii Street scale design 1 Space along street whose boundary is set by buildings -- consider at block level 2 Characteristics a Street lights b Bike racks, bike lanes c Trees and flowers d Big sidewalks 2 Benefits of suburbs a Lots of space b Good for younger children ii Aesthetic quality b Block considerations i Low traffic speed, narrow streets, street connectivity, sidewalks, small block size, trees/foliage II But is Built Environment the Magic Bullet a Build environment can facilitate or constrain physical activity b Relationship is complex and operates through many mediating variable, such as SES, personal and cultural variables, safety and security in build environment and individuals decisions about time allocation c Empirical evidence shows a link between build environment and physical activity but no causation i CS studies predominant ii Insights regarding temporal relationship lacking iii Neighborhood self-selection typically not controlled for -- based on economic and social circumstances, physical activity and transportation preferences II Walkable neighborhood study a Younger kids benefit from more time in play in and around home and yard b Older kids spend less time around the house and have the desire to go out to the mall Built Environment as a Determinant of PA: Deprivation Amplification and Environmental Justice Wednesday, October 5, 2016 11:15 AM I When we think about build environment and health… a It's not just about the issue of sprawl, "fixing" suburbia; that’s only one aspect b We need to ask, what is the overall quality of a neighborhood? i How does who gets to live in a neighborhood differ by income, race, gender? ii Just because it is walkable, does not mean it is enjoyable or actually "walkable" II Urban-Suburban Paradox a "Even though urban form may, in principle, facilitate being active…many factors of the environment in inner cities - including build, physical and social factors - may exert a net negative influence on the health of inner city residents and … may be mediated in ways that are different or function differently from those in suburban neighborhoods." b Taxonomy of Urban Environmental Issues c Issue Representat Potential pathways ion risk of effect factors Land use issue Business Lengthens and job loss commutes, reduces Proximity of walking Toxic Pollution may facilities discourage outdoor Lack of activities supermarke may be more ts difficult to access Abandoned healthy diets buildings reduces density, Vacant lots increases crime increase crime, discourages walking Infrastructure, Sidewalks Lack of pedestrian Maintenance, and street amenities and Service trees discourages walking issues Lighting Fear of crime keeps Transit people indoors projects Lack of transmit makes people more dependent on driving Social Poverty and Poor areas suffer Environment income from disinvestment issues inequality May promote Racial "redlining": the segregation denial of loans to Crime certain communities Unsafe areas may result in less physical activity, lower overall health status d How might the policy solutions needed to make urban areas more conductive to physical activity differ than those needed to make suburban areas more conductive to physical activity? i Infrastructure 1 Man-made ponds 2 Walking paths ii Zoning laws 1 Bigger sidewalks ii Policy necessary for suburban areas? II Demographic Reversal? a City and suburb growth shifts b 2000-2010 : Bigger increase in population in suburbs c 2010-2011 : bigger increase in population of cities d In DC, whites are moving into the city i First time in history that whites are moving into predominantly black areas ii Due to: 1 People want to be closer to city 2 High traffic that can be avoided by walking 3 Less kids - don’t need as much space 4 Aging baby boomers or empty nesters 5 Overt racism has decreased II Gentrification: the process of renewal and rebuilding accompanying the influx of middle class or affluent people into deteriorating areas that often displaces poorer residents a What are some of the impacts of gentrification? i Increased rent - loss of affordable housing ii Cost of goods increases iii More property crime, less personal crime iv Better amenities -- schools, recreational centers v Homelessness -- displacement vi Decreased vacancy rates a Example : DC Church says a bike lane would infringe upon its constitutional "rights of religious freedom" b Example: why did it take this great influx of white people to get the schools better? Why is the garbage getting picked up more regularly? -- Spike Lee I Cycle of Disadvantage? a Environmental Dimensions of Unhealthy Neighborhoods b Affluent tend to benefit for accumulated (and interrelated) economic, social, and physical advantages c The poor and racial minorities tend to suffer from accumulated economic, social, and physical disadvantages i Economic Environment ii Physical Environment iii Social Environment iv Service Environment II Deprivation Amplification a "in places where people have fewer personal resources, the local (public facilities that enable people to lead healthy lives are poorer than in areas that are not impoverished and socially deprived
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