New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 7 Notes

by: Nozima Notetaker

Week 7 Notes PHIL 1050 01

Nozima Notetaker

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Moral theories+ Metaphysics
Intro to Phil: Self and Reality
Michael Mazza
Class Notes
Metaphysics, Morality, Deontology, virtues, dualism, materialism, philosophy
25 ?




Popular in Intro to Phil: Self and Reality

Popular in Philosophy

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nozima Notetaker on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1050 01 at Saint Louis University taught by Michael Mazza in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro to Phil: Self and Reality in Philosophy at Saint Louis University.


Reviews for Week 7 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/09/16
Know the quotations, moral theories, and people associated with those theories. 10/03/2016 Virtue Ethics: the view that character or virtues are the basic modes of evaluation in morality, as opposed to act evaluations such as “right” and “wrong”.  Characters are different in person.  Focus less on right or wrong actions and more on the characters of the person.  Aristotle (student of Plato): Nicomachean Ethics. o Cannot answer the question what should I do without answering the question What am I. o Aristotle thinks that the question “What should you do?” or “What sort of person should I be?” are intrinsically connected to the question “What sort of thing am I”.  In other words, have t analyze human nature in order to analyze morality.  Previous were not connected to human nature.  What is the essence and purpose of human being.  There is a purpose of human beings- whole goal of Aristotle. o What is the end of human being? What is the purpose of human beings? (end- what is the purpose, not as the end in the novel etc).  Ex. Purpose of heart- pump blood, purpose of chairs- to sit on them, everything in nature has telos= end of a thing, purpose of something.  Argument for why human beings have purposes: Everything in nature has a purpose. Human beings are part of nature. Therefore, human beings have a purpose.  There are two conditions that needs to be met for something to be the end of telos of a human being. 1. It must be something that is sought for as end in itself, and not merely as a means to another end. a. Ex. Money- means to another end. Money is not end of itself. 2. It must always be worthy to choose in itself and never for the sake of something else. It must be complete without qualification. a. You must have it and there is no limiting factors about it. b. Ex. If you achieve it, then there are no limiting factors. c. Happiness- is the purpose/ end of human beings. Happiness= well being, flourishing according to Aristotle. Aristotle identifies happiness as living well, or acting well. ** A broader definition of happiness. Happiness is an activity of the soul in accordance with virtue. End of human beings is have virtues; the way nature built us. Ex. Piano purpose is playing music. But if one uses piano as the desk, then it becomes non- virtue. A virtue is disposition to behave in the right manner and a means between extremes of deficiency and excess, which are vices. (Достоинство, Сила, Хорошее качество). Virtue- means between two extremes: Rashness(безрассудство) Courage (мужество) Cowardice(трусость) Self- indulgent (потакающий) Temperance(сдержанность) Insensibility (бесчувственность) Prodigality(щедрость) Liberality Stinginess(скупость) Virtues: means bn extremes: courage, generosity, modesty, honesty, good humor, friendship, temperance, self- control. Actions are not themselves “good” or “bad” in strict sense. Rather we call actions “good” or “bad” since they are the actions typically of virtuous (добродотельный) or vicious (злой) people. Aristotle wants to say what is the end of human beings? End of human beings is happiness. What is happiness? Happiness are virtues. What are virtues- means bn extremes. Therefore, the human being are designed to be a virtuous person. Ex. Hitler is vicious person, Aristotel is broken human being vicious. 10/05/2016 Virtue Ethics- character focus; not to focus on “to do list”. - Everything in nature has a purpose, and since human beings are parts of nature, they also have a purpose. - The purpose of human beings is happiness: flourishing, living well. - Happiness is the activity of a soul in accordance to flourish. - Virtue is disposition to behave in the right manner as a mean between extremes of deficiency and excess. - So, the chief end of mankind is the activity of the soul in accordance with virtue, and virtue is tendency toward moderate actions. o Virtue is a habit. *The way to achieve virtue is to habitually act as if you already had it. Then you will eventually have it. “ We are repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit”- Aristotle. Happiness is not dependent on an individual, person have to be able to fix the broken character themselves, not just by claiming that one became fixed. Who we are is more important than what we do. Pros of Virtue Ethics: 1. It avoids some problems associated with other theories. 2. It focuses on building a person’s character rather than just adjusting that person’s actions. Cons of Virtue Ethics: 1. It has a great difficulty answering the question of what the right actions are. 2. It is ambiguous what the “means” are sometimes, and it might seem arbitrary to call some actions “wrong”. 3. Virtues can be in conflict. “Be honest” can be in conflict with “be kind”. Metaphysics - is the study of what exists and the nature of what exist. - Meta-physics: beyond or above physics. Are you all destined toward particular end? Is there any choice? Does God exist? Are human beings pure material objects? Is there things as soul? We will talk first of all about the following question: Are human beings purely material or do they have souls? Dualism: the view that persons are identical to non-physical souls, but they are causally related to their bodies. Material atoms and molecules are not identical to the person. 10/07/2016 Dualism: the view that persons are identical to non-physical souls, but that they are causally related to their bodies. Causally related to human body, soul drives the body; truck gives certain limitations that what truck driver can do with the truck. Souls are different from material bodies that they control. Soul could continue to exist. Body is distinct from the soul. Materialism (physicalism): the view that persons are identical to their bodes and that they have non physical parts. Human bodies do not have souls. Dualism: -Rene Descartes (1596-1650):  Father of modern philosophy.  Main proponent of dualism (substance dualism) Argument from language: 1. If I am identical to my body, then a machine (my body) can genuinely use language. 2. However, machines cannot genuinely use language. 3. Therefore, I am not identical to my body. (Therefore, I am identical to my soul). Argument from Survival over time: 1. If I am identical to my body, then I am completely replaced over the course of seven years. (I cannot survive more than seven years). 2. But I am not replaced over the course of seven years. (I can survive seven years). 3. Therefore, I am not identical to my body. (Therefore, I am identical to my body). Material beings respond only to inputs and give outputs.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.