Week 7 Notes
Week 7 Notes PHIL 1050 01
Popular in Intro to Phil: Self and Reality
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nozima Notetaker on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1050 01 at Saint Louis University taught by Michael Mazza in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro to Phil: Self and Reality in Philosophy at Saint Louis University.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Know the quotations, moral theories, and people associated with those theories. 10/03/2016 Virtue Ethics: the view that character or virtues are the basic modes of evaluation in morality, as opposed to act evaluations such as “right” and “wrong”. Characters are different in person. Focus less on right or wrong actions and more on the characters of the person. Aristotle (student of Plato): Nicomachean Ethics. o Cannot answer the question what should I do without answering the question What am I. o Aristotle thinks that the question “What should you do?” or “What sort of person should I be?” are intrinsically connected to the question “What sort of thing am I”. In other words, have t analyze human nature in order to analyze morality. Previous were not connected to human nature. What is the essence and purpose of human being. There is a purpose of human beings- whole goal of Aristotle. o What is the end of human being? What is the purpose of human beings? (end- what is the purpose, not as the end in the novel etc). Ex. Purpose of heart- pump blood, purpose of chairs- to sit on them, everything in nature has telos= end of a thing, purpose of something. Argument for why human beings have purposes: Everything in nature has a purpose. Human beings are part of nature. Therefore, human beings have a purpose. There are two conditions that needs to be met for something to be the end of telos of a human being. 1. It must be something that is sought for as end in itself, and not merely as a means to another end. a. Ex. Money- means to another end. Money is not end of itself. 2. It must always be worthy to choose in itself and never for the sake of something else. It must be complete without qualification. a. You must have it and there is no limiting factors about it. b. Ex. If you achieve it, then there are no limiting factors. c. Happiness- is the purpose/ end of human beings. Happiness= well being, flourishing according to Aristotle. Aristotle identifies happiness as living well, or acting well. ** A broader definition of happiness. Happiness is an activity of the soul in accordance with virtue. End of human beings is have virtues; the way nature built us. Ex. Piano purpose is playing music. But if one uses piano as the desk, then it becomes non- virtue. A virtue is disposition to behave in the right manner and a means between extremes of deficiency and excess, which are vices. (Достоинство, Сила, Хорошее качество). Virtue- means between two extremes: Rashness(безрассудство) Courage (мужество) Cowardice(трусость) Self- indulgent (потакающий) Temperance(сдержанность) Insensibility (бесчувственность) Prodigality(щедрость) Liberality Stinginess(скупость) Virtues: means bn extremes: courage, generosity, modesty, honesty, good humor, friendship, temperance, self- control. Actions are not themselves “good” or “bad” in strict sense. Rather we call actions “good” or “bad” since they are the actions typically of virtuous (добродотельный) or vicious (злой) people. Aristotle wants to say what is the end of human beings? End of human beings is happiness. What is happiness? Happiness are virtues. What are virtues- means bn extremes. Therefore, the human being are designed to be a virtuous person. Ex. Hitler is vicious person, Aristotel is broken human being vicious. 10/05/2016 Virtue Ethics- character focus; not to focus on “to do list”. - Everything in nature has a purpose, and since human beings are parts of nature, they also have a purpose. - The purpose of human beings is happiness: flourishing, living well. - Happiness is the activity of a soul in accordance to flourish. - Virtue is disposition to behave in the right manner as a mean between extremes of deficiency and excess. - So, the chief end of mankind is the activity of the soul in accordance with virtue, and virtue is tendency toward moderate actions. o Virtue is a habit. *The way to achieve virtue is to habitually act as if you already had it. Then you will eventually have it. “ We are repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit”- Aristotle. Happiness is not dependent on an individual, person have to be able to fix the broken character themselves, not just by claiming that one became fixed. Who we are is more important than what we do. Pros of Virtue Ethics: 1. It avoids some problems associated with other theories. 2. It focuses on building a person’s character rather than just adjusting that person’s actions. Cons of Virtue Ethics: 1. It has a great difficulty answering the question of what the right actions are. 2. It is ambiguous what the “means” are sometimes, and it might seem arbitrary to call some actions “wrong”. 3. Virtues can be in conflict. “Be honest” can be in conflict with “be kind”. Metaphysics - is the study of what exists and the nature of what exist. - Meta-physics: beyond or above physics. Are you all destined toward particular end? Is there any choice? Does God exist? Are human beings pure material objects? Is there things as soul? We will talk first of all about the following question: Are human beings purely material or do they have souls? Dualism: the view that persons are identical to non-physical souls, but they are causally related to their bodies. Material atoms and molecules are not identical to the person. 10/07/2016 Dualism: the view that persons are identical to non-physical souls, but that they are causally related to their bodies. Causally related to human body, soul drives the body; truck gives certain limitations that what truck driver can do with the truck. Souls are different from material bodies that they control. Soul could continue to exist. Body is distinct from the soul. Materialism (physicalism): the view that persons are identical to their bodes and that they have non physical parts. Human bodies do not have souls. Dualism: -Rene Descartes (1596-1650): Father of modern philosophy. Main proponent of dualism (substance dualism) Argument from language: 1. If I am identical to my body, then a machine (my body) can genuinely use language. 2. However, machines cannot genuinely use language. 3. Therefore, I am not identical to my body. (Therefore, I am identical to my soul). Argument from Survival over time: 1. If I am identical to my body, then I am completely replaced over the course of seven years. (I cannot survive more than seven years). 2. But I am not replaced over the course of seven years. (I can survive seven years). 3. Therefore, I am not identical to my body. (Therefore, I am identical to my body). Material beings respond only to inputs and give outputs.
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