New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Microbiology 201 10/3 to 10/7

by: Julianna Sickafus

Microbiology 201 10/3 to 10/7 MICRB 201

Marketplace > Pennsylvania State University > Microbiology > MICRB 201 > Microbiology 201 10 3 to 10 7
Julianna Sickafus
Penn State

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Notes from 10/3 to 10/7
Introductory Microbiology
Dr. Steven Keating
Class Notes
transcription, RNA, DNA, replication, nucleotide
25 ?




Popular in Introductory Microbiology

Popular in Microbiology

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julianna Sickafus on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MICRB 201 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Steven Keating in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introductory Microbiology in Microbiology at Pennsylvania State University.

Similar to MICRB 201 at Penn State


Reviews for Microbiology 201 10/3 to 10/7


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/09/16
Microbiology 201 10/3/16 – 10/7/16 Biosynthesis II Phosphorus Assimilation -major component of -nucleic acids -proteins -phospholipids -ATP, FAD, NAD, NADP -phosphorus is donated to other macromolecules from ATP -ATP formed by: -oxidative phosphorylation -substrate-level phosphorylation -photophosphorylation Sulfur Assimilation -essential component of amino acids -methionine (start codon), cysteine (disulfide bond), coenzymes -acquired from recycled methionine and cysteine from the environment and intracellular breakdown of proteins -acquired by assimilatory sulfate reduction -formation of cysteine from sulfates Nitrogen Assimilation -major component of proteins, amino acids, and coenzymes + -to be assimilated into cells, N2must be reduced to NH (NH 3 4 -acquired from -atmospheric N (2itrogen fixation) + -NH 4 (or NH 3 -nitrates Nitrogen Fixation -anaerobic process -occurs in only a few prokaryotes -does not occur in eukaryotes -requires specialized structures -called heterocyst -non photosynthetic -very energy intensive -about 40 ATP per reduced N 2 compare with industrial N f2xation via Haber-Bosch process -catalyzed by nitrogenase + -reduces atmospheric nitrogen to NH and 3H 4 NH /NH incorporation 4 3 + -most common route of NH 4 incorporation is via condensation reaction between NH 4+and -KG (from TCA cycle) -amine group of glutamic acid can be transferred to other carbon skeletons to generate other amino acids -catalyzed by transaminases NO A3similation -due to heavy demand on catabolic pathways for carbon skeletons used in biosynthesis, intermediates need to be replenished -reactions that generate such intermediates are known as anaplerotic reactions -major anaplerotic pathway: -glyoxylate cycle/bypass -modified TCA cycle that bypasses decarboxylation steps: therefore, no loss of carbon as CO 2 -key enzymes: -isocitrate lyase -malate synthase Nucleic Acids Discovery of DNA as genetic material a) Griffiths (1928) -discovery of transmitting principle -“lucky” experiment -strep are naturally competent -ability of cells to take up naked DNA -cellular component from virulent step transforms avirulent to virulent b) Avery, McLeod, McCarthy (1944) -transforming principle is DNA -nucleotides are building blocks of nucleic acids a) nitrogenous base -purines or pyrimidines b) 5 C sugar -ribose or deoxyribose c) phosphate -nucleoside: nitrogenous base + sugar -nucleotide: nucleoside + phosphate -nucleic acid -polymer of nucleotides -DNA consists of deoxyribonucleotides of: -adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine -RNA consists of: -same bases except uracil (U) replaces thymine (T) -nucleotides are linked together via phosphodiester bonds -sugar phosphate backbone of nucleic acids DNA Structure -generally 2 polynucleotide chains wound around each other to form double helix -bases attach to 1’C of sugar and extends into center of helix -consecutive bases separated by 0.34nm -strands in double helix are complementary and connected via H-bonds -A with T (2 H bonds) -C with G (3 H bonds) -purine pairs with pyrimidine -2 ring with 1 ring -3 ring across -10 base pairs per turn of helix -each base pair rotated 36 relative to it immediate neighbor -each base pair is separated by 0.34nm -1 complete turn of helix= 3.4nm -strands run in antiparallel directions -5’ to 3’ -3’ to 5’ -enzymes can read strands -know where to start transcription/translation -5’ end -> phosphate group -3’ end -> OH group RNA Structure -usually single stranded -folds over to form intra molecular H bonds -main forms: -mRNA (messenger) -tRNA (transfer) -rRNA (ribosomal) -sRNA (small) Organization of DNA in Cells -genome -all genetic material within a cell -depending on organism may include: -plasmids -chloroplast genome -mitochondrial genome -structural gene -string of nucleotides that can be converted into RNA -collection of genes constitutes chromosomes -collection of chromosomes constitutes genome Chromosomes in Most Prokaryotes -single, circular, supercoiled, confined to nucleoid, associated with basic proteins to aid packaging Chromosomes in Eukaryotes -more than 1, linear, associated with basic proteins known as histones -DNA wrapped around histones to form nucleosomes -collection of nucleosomes make up chromatin DNA Replication -process of copying genetic information in parental DNA -objective is to transmit genetic information to offspring -semi conservative process -each strand contains 1 parent strand and 1 new strand Mechanism of DNA Replication -enzyme -DNA polymerase -synthesized in 5’ to 3’ direction -nucleotides added to 3’ end -template strand read from 3’ to 5’ -helicase used to unzip double helix by breaking H bonds to allow DNA polymerase to read bases -uses energy -once strands are separate, they need to be kept apart -single stranded DNA binding proteins (SSBs) -keep strands apart -do not cover up bases -binds to backbone -helicase introduces over winding (tension) -topoisomerase relieve tension by cutting and ligating backbone -DNA polymerase does not initiate replication spontaneously -requires and RNA oligonucleotide primer (about 10 base pairs) on which to add new nucleotides -made by DNA primase (an RNA polymerase) -RNA eventually removed and replaced by DNA -the process of replicating both strands involves a leading strand and a lagging strand -leading strand synthesized continuously -lagging strand synthesis is discontinuous -made in short fragments known as Okazaki fragments -eventually joined together by DNA ligase -DNA polymerase is an extremely accurate enzyme -possesses proofreading activity due to exonuclease activity -allows depolymerization from a free end


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.