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Week 7 - Water, Electrolytes, Antioxidants

by: rgslc8

Week 7 - Water, Electrolytes, Antioxidants NUTR 1020-090

Marketplace > University of Utah > NUTR 1020-090 > Week 7 Water Electrolytes Antioxidants
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These notes cover the functions of water, the dangers of overhydration and underhydration, fluid balance, electrolytes and their functions. They also cover the different types of antioxidants and ...
Scientific Foundations of Nutrition and Health
Joan Benson
Class Notes
antioxidants, Water, Electrolytes, Oxidation-Reduction, phytochemicals, Vitamins, selenium, carotenoids
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by rgslc8 on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 1020-090 at University of Utah taught by Joan Benson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.


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Date Created: 10/09/16
Water --- October 4 Water: Essential to human life The main constituent of body is water  More than 50% of our body is water Extracellular fluid 37% - 17 liters  Blood plasma, lymph, fluid between cells, tears, synovial fluid Intracellular fluid 63% - 25 liters  Blood cells, bone cells, muscle, adipose Total fluid volume is about 40 liters Functions of Water 1. Distribution of nutrients 2. Removal of waste products: urea 3. Removal of excess nutrients: sodium 4. Acid-base balance 5. Medium for many chemical reactions 6. Temperature regulation 7. Components of body fluids: blood 8. Lubrication: saliva Water Balance: intake vs. output  Water intake: o Beverages (9 cups) o Foods (2 cups) o Metabolic water (1 cup)  Water output: o Urine (8 cups) o Sweat (2 cups) o Lungs (1 cup) o Feces (0.4)  Adequate intake for total water: o Men: 3.7 liters (15 cups) o Women: 2.7 liters (11 cups)  Regulation of fluid balance via kidney Fluid Balance  The blood pressure and the concentration of solutes in the blood are constantly monitored by receptors in the kidneys, blood vessels, and brain o Brain: senses depletion of body fluids  Sends signal to hypothalamus to pituitary gland, which releases ADH (Anti-diuretic hormone)  Kidneys retain more water o Kidneys: sense depletion of body fluids  Reduce fluid excretion Electrolytes  Body controls the amount of water in the intracellular and extracellular compartments mainly by controlling electrolyte concentrations o Intracellular fluid: Potassium and Phosphorus o Extracellular fluid: Sodium and Chloride  Attract water, act as a magnet  Osmosis: the passage of water through a membrane from a lower electrolyte concentration to a higher electrolyte concentration Functions of Electrolytes 1. Maintain fluid balance a. Isotonic: water movement in and out of the cell is equal b. Hypotonic: Over hydration – too much water enters the cell, cell will swell c. Hypertonic: Dehydration – cell will shrivel 2. Maintain Acid- Base balance a. pH of the blood is maintained close to 7.4 i. Acidosis (pH 7.0 -7.3) and Alkalosis (pH 7.5 or higher) 3. Control the conduction of a nerve impulse Hydration Status Easiest way: observe the urine color o Pale yellow is optimum Dehydration  Effects can range from thirst to death, depending on the extent of water weight loss. o Thirst, fatigue, dizziness, weakness, headache o Muscles lose strength and endurance o Central nervous system is affected o Heat tolerance decreased o Failing kidney function  Kidney Stones o Potential consequence of inadequate fluid intake is kidney stones  Minerals and other substances combine together to form a stone Overhydration (Hyponatremia)  Water intake can exceed kidneys’ processing ability o Can lead to water intoxication Sodium  Function: fluid balance, nerve impulse conduction, absorption of some nutrients  If blood sodium level is high, excess sodium removed with water, greater urine output o Why sodium makes us thirsty  How much sodium do we need every day? o 1 teaspoon of salt per day (2,400 milligrams/day) o Nearly all Americans exceed dietary requirements for sodium  Average intake: 3,300 mg/day  Processed foods are a large source of sodium Sea Salt vs. Table Salt  Salt: o 40% sodium o 60% chloride  Sea Salt: minimally processed  Table Salt: processed into find grains  Most table salt is fortified with iodine o Iodine: an essential nutrient for thyroid function Potassium  Functions: fluid balance, nerve impulse function  High potassium intake associated with lower blood pressure  Potassium counteracts all the actions of sodium  Adequate intake: 4700 milligrams o DV: 3500 milligrams o Americans typically consume only 2,000 milligrams of potassium per day o Unprocessed foods are rich sources of potassium  Kidney beans, squash, banana, soybeans, cantaloupe Blood Pressure 120/80 mm Hg Pressure in the blood vessel Systolic: the pressure in the arteries when the heart muscle is contracting and pumping blood into the arteries Diastolic: the artery pressure when the heart is relaxed Hypertension: 140 or above/ 90 or above o One in three adults are hypertensive in the US o Symptomless o Risk factors: stress, physical inactivity, excessive sodium consumption, overweight, family history Pre-Hypertension: Between 121-139/ between 81-89 How to lower blood pressure? o Exercise, decreasing salt, limiting alcohol intake, ensuring adequate potassium intake Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet) o Changes diet to fix hypertension Antioxidant Nutrients --- October 6 Free Radicals  Many chemical reactions involve the transfer of electrons between molecules  Oxidation: removal of an electron o A molecule is oxidized when it loses an electron  Reduction: addition of an electron o A molecule is reduced when it gains an electron  Typically all electrons are paired but when such reactions result in an unpaired electron, the molecule is called a free radical. o Due to an unpaired electron, they are highly reactive species (aggressive) by affinity to donate or obtain another electron to attain stability o Radicals try to reach equilibrium and plucks an electron from the nearest intact molecules  Electron-stealing chain reaction!  Free radicals are dangerous to cells because they remove electrons from other substances such as DNA, Proteins, and Lipids o Most radicals are short-lived and they react quickly with other molecule  Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS)  Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) o Sources of free radicals  Radiation  Air Pollutants  Drugs  Invasions of pathogens, bacteria, and viruses  Xenobiotics (toxins) Endogenous sources within the body: White blood cells, Mitochondria Antioxidants  Donates one electron to the free radical to stabilize it o Does not make the antioxidant a free radical  The Antioxidant System o Antioxidant Chemicals and Antioxidant Enzymes  Donate electrons to free radicals without becoming reactive themselves  Proteins, minerals, vitamins, phytochemicals Oxidative Stress  An imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant levels in favor of reactive oxygen species in cells and tissues  Reactive oxygen species – promotes oxidative damage o Lower concentration: hero (physiological)  Necessary for the regulation of key physiological mechanisms  Free radicals produced by white blood cells assist in the destruction of bacteria, viruses, and fungi  Free radicals destroy altered cells in the body, possibly preventing cancer o Higher concentration: villain (pathological)  Damage the cell  Associated with diseases: diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease  Antioxidants – inhibits free radicals  Many diseases are related to oxidative stress  Oxidative stress modify and/or damage lipids, proteins, and DNA Consequences of oxidative stress  Overproduction of free radicals can be harmful to healthy cells  Free radicals can damage specific structures and molecules within the cells – DNA, proteins, and lipids o Damage to DNA:  Skin cancer o Damage to protein:  Cataract o Damage to lipids:  Damage to LDL proteins, plaque formation and atherosclerosis Antioxidants  Vitamin E o Fat soluble o Eight forms of vitamin E o Alpha – tocopherol is most active and most potent o Functions  Antioxidant  Improves vitamin A absorption  Regulate metabolism of iron within cells  Maintain nervous system and immune function  Donates electrons of hydrogen to free radicals found in membrane making them more stable o Sources: plant products, oil, nuts, seeds o Susceptible to destruction by oxygen, metals, light and deep-fat frying o A deficiency is rare o Too much Vitamin E can interfere with blood clotting  Vitamin C o Water soluble o Must be obtained through the diet o Functions:  Potent antioxidant  It can readily donate electrons to free radicals or recycle vitamin E  Synthesis of collagen protein  Enhances absorption of iron  Vital for the proper function of the immune system  Deficiency: can lead to Scurvy  Pinpoint hemorrhages in the skin  Many sailors died of scurvy  Sources: citrus, strawberries, green peppers, romaine lettuce  Deficiency: increases with smoking, alcoholism, a diet that lacks fruits  Boiling/frying can destroy vitamin C in foods Selenium (Se)  Functions: o Cofactor in an antioxidant enzyme o Essential for the activation of thyroid hormone o Low blood levels of selenium have been linked to cancer  Sources: fish, eggs, grains, seeds, brazil nuts  Symptoms of deficiency: muscle pain, wasting, and heart damage Carotenoids  Phytochemicals – beta carotene, lycopene, lutein  Precursors of vitamin A  Profound antioxidant properties – scavenging free radicals  Beta carotene: reduce the risk of cataracts in the eyes, lower the risk of macular degeneration  Sources: yellow and orange vegetables, dark green vegetables, pink grapefruit  Cooking releases the bonds from proteins  Dietary carotenoids do not produce toxin events o Can turn you orange Phytochemicals  Functional foods that produce health benefits beyond those supplied by the traditional nutrients they contain  Important antioxidant ORAC  Oxygen radical absorption capacity: good way to estimate antioxidant capacity


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