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Week 5/6 Geology

by: Sammi Tai

Week 5/6 Geology Geology 300

Sammi Tai
Cosumnes River College
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Geology 300 Physical Geology
Professor Wynne
Class Notes




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sammi Tai on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geology 300 at Cosumnes River College taught by Professor Wynne in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Geology 300 Physical Geology in Geology at Cosumnes River College.

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Date Created: 10/09/16
Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rock I. What is it­ A. The distinct change in the appearance of a rock due to changes in its temperature, pressure, and chemical environment. B. The solid state transformation of rock due to changes in the  thermodynamic environment 1. Recrystallization­ occurs on a ionic or molecular  level a) Goes faster at higher temperature or when fluids are present b) Occurs in solid rock = no melting c) Crystals grow large and become  more perfect II. What causes it A. As pressure increases water is squeezed out and temperature rise III. Differential vs Uniform Stress A. Hydrostatic­ the same force or pressure in all directions B. Differential­ not the same force, one direction will have the most  stress= greatest compression 1. Includes shearing 2. Can develop foliation C. Strain is simply deforming the rock 1. Deformation a) Brittle­ breaks (shallow and cool  rocks) b) Ductile­ bends (deeper or warm  rocks) IV. Foliation, Shearing, and Mylonites A. Mylonites are highly sheared and recrystallized rocks V. Types of Metamorphism A. Regional­ in large regions under mountains between plates 1. Over vast areas B. Fluid­ fluids moving through cracks­ less common 1. At plate boundaries C. Contact­ Thermal­ sudden increase of heat 1. Short distances newly emplaced magma D. Dynamic­ shearing ­ broken down VI. Pressure and Temperature A. Burial metamorphism is when it's being pushed down but  sediment continues to go into it filling it up VII. Why don’t these reverse? A. Metamorphic Rocks  1. They have similar chemistry but different minerals  from their predecessors Depositional Environments. Lithification, and Naming of Sediment Rocks I. Weathering A. Physical­ ceases after deposition B. Chemical­ continues after deposition 1. Sediment can have many types of minerals C. What 1. Feldspar becomes clay minerals 2. Quartz is resisitant = fragments  3. Brotite­ions( iron and potassium) D. Sorting­ the extent to which clasts are similarly sized 1. Sand sorts best 2. Smaller means easier to transport 3. More clasts = more rounded 4. More transporting= more abrasions= more rounded a) Beaches have rounded rocks E. Dysgenesis­ the changes that happen to sediment after it is  deposited and before it lithified 1. Process­ compaction, dewatering and oxidation of  organics F. Lithification­ process of sediment becoming rock (by ions in pore  water) G. Classifying casts 1. Sand ­ 1/16th mm to 2 mm 2. Casts ate particles deposited. H physical processes ie rock fragments, sand 3. Cement­ individual ions and atoms precipitated  from solution after clasts are deposited a) Silica and calcite II. Products of Weathering are transferred A. Sediment is carried into the oceans 1. Drops out close to shore 2. Very little sediment, far from continents B. A Sedimentary Environment 1. Widespread occurring or commonly found place or  settings where similar sediments are deposited by similar processes 2. Examples­ river deltas, beaches, deep sea plains 3. A depositional environment can sometimes be  recognized by rock that formed within  a) The sea floor is the final deposition b) Deep sea floor = the abyssal plains  (1) The fastest is off the  coast of spain (2) Even the currents are only 6 mph c) Small and General­ carried along (1) Fast and small­  eroded (2) Marine­ underwater 4. Turbidites 5. Ions are transported in solution in groundwater a) Clasts move in surface waters (1) Ions move in sfc  waters and groundwater  b) Sometimes transferred by wind,  glaciers, and gravity III. Categorizing  A. Types 1. Marine­ underwater 2. Continental­ above sea level 3. Clastic­ made of clasts implies on or near continent B. Common Dep E’s­ Onshore 1. At the edge of mountains­ alluvial fans and alluvium 2. Glacial Deposits 3. Volcanic Clastic Deposits­ many clasts are from  volcanos  4. River Channel and braided stream­ shallow, gravel  banks, but changes everyday, multiple thin channels 5. Lake and deltaic­ deltas ­deposits C. Slope Failures aka landslide D. Sand dunes­ the steep face is always on the downcurrent side 1. Dune formation is the same in wind or water E. Cross Bedding­ indicates the deposit grew from wind or water  currents moving in varying directions  1. Sand storms can’t be lifted very far up but dust  storms are good F. Other deposits 1. Fluvial or River System a) All gravity pulled of rainwater or  snowmelt b) Mountain streams are extremely  physical weathering during transport c) River channels gradually get wider  and wider 2. Glacial Deposits a) Are usually poor sized sorted b) Usually lack discernible bedding c) No water comes out d) May occur in distinct shapes 3. Volcaniclastic Deposits­  a) Poorly sorted by size b) Variable to angular clasts G. Alluvial Fans 1. Fan shaped clastic sedimentary deposits found at  the arid base of a mountain range 2. Typically boulders and gravel 3. Poorly sorted 4. Fine grained sand and silt may be deposited at the  edges of the fan in the valley a) In death valley  b) roughly half a mile H. Lagoonal Environment 1. Sunlit­biological activity 2. Sheltered, shallow, oxygenated waters 3. Typically  a) Silts and fine sands with ripple on  the bottom, bioturbation I. Common dep E’e Offshore 1. Lagoons and Coral Reefs a) Biochemical Rock System b) Literally a graveyard of limestone  skeletal material c) A thin live coating of organisms  growing upward toward sunlight d) 2. Deltaic deposits a) Vary in size b) Mostly silt sized particles c) Rich in organic matter with traceable bedding d) Usually a main channel breaks apart into distributaries  e) Natural Levees­ are built up by many floods 3. Continental Shelf Sands 4. Turbidites­ deposition after anh flood lt wanking  trent  a) Storms drop off the largest clasts b) Course at the bottom and fine at the  top c) Dirty water, denser than regular  water d) Form around the continental shelf 5. Submarine Canyons 6. Abyssal Plains a) Evaporite­ rock formed from the  evaporation of water (1) Salt b) Stromatolites­ the oldest large fossil  (1) In Australia (2) Layers of algae and  salt and silt I. Key Concepts  A. Two 1. Weathering occurs  a) Source area b) During transportation c) After deposition 2. Most environments ate a combination of physical  and chemical weathering a) Sediment takes thousands of years  to erode away B. Three 1. Source Environment moves to traditional or  transport environments to depositional environments (the final  destination/ site of lithification) a) It can also be washed out to the bay  or to monterey canyon b) Over time things cycle C. Four 1. Physical weathering a)  is favored by  (1) Steeper slopes (2) Moving fluids (3) Colder temperatures (a) Glacier s are like bulldozers b) Comes from gravitational process,  running water, cold (1) Higher elevation  means more to fall!  (2) Causing downsloping  clast movements (3) Flowing fluids moving clast are abraded (a) Moving water’s density or weight has the ability to destroy  and move things (b) Abrasi on is the rubbing of one solid against another  causing small particles to be rubbed off  (i) D estroys softer or more easily broken clasts (c) Water  can freeze and expand to push the rock apart (4) Deserts  (5) Oceans are the most  intense weathering by abrasion because of its constant  beating c) Lesser Causes (1) Glacial abrasion (2) Thermal expansion  and contraction (3) Disturbance by  animals­ digging/ burrowing (4) Gravity is constant 2. Chemical Weathering a) Occurs at the atomic level meaning  it’s not visible (1) Ion by ion (2) Happens faster when  there is more surface area( when there are more joints/  cracks) (3) b) Occurs at (1) Warm temperatures (2) Moisture (a) Groun dwater moving through cracks in rocks (3) Biological activity (a) Our  Stomach has a pH of 0 c) Lower Elevations, humidity, flat,  plants and animals d) Acid Rain! e) Loose sediment that is washed away reveals the marker stains (1) Limestone weathers  very easily f) Weathered granite boulders formed  in place and are now being revealed as the sediment is blown  away (1) Made of feldspar  (2) Rounded corners  (3) Subjected to chemical weathering even in the ground but above the water table g) Processes  (1) Dissolution­ dissolved (a) Salt is  a rock that easily dissolve (b) Ions  are leached or carried downwards and  accumulated (c) Air in  the pore spaces= higher chance of chemical  weathering 3. Jointing in Rocks(another word for fracture) a) Helps both styles of weathering but  usually leans toward chemical weathering


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