Chapter 3 Notes Colonial Ways of Life
Chapter 3 Notes Colonial Ways of Life Hist
Northwest Missouri State University
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Date Created: 10/09/16
CHAPTER 3: COLONIAL WAYS OF LIFE THE SHAPE OF EARLY AMERICA POPULATION GROWTH I. Many died of disease, starvation, or warfare with natives. a. Later became settled and secure, and grew rapidly. b. Population doubled every 25 years. i. 1750: passed 1 million ii. 1775: approached 2.5 million II. Land in America was plentiful and cheap, laborers were scarce and expensive. III. Enclosure Movement a. Nobles fenced their land and focused on commercial crops. i. Cash crops. b. Created widespread unemployment, homelessness, and starvation. BIRTH AND DEATH RATES I. Colonists married and had families earlier than Europeans. a. England i. Women married at 26. b. America i. Women married at 20. II. Birth Rate a. Proportion of births per 1,000 of the total population. b. Two additional pregnancies in America III. Death Rate a. Proportion of deaths per 1,000 of the total population b. Mortality Rate “WOMEN’S WORK” IN THE COLONIES I. English America had far more women than New Spain and New France. a. This did not mean greater equality. b. Convictions of deep rooted inferiority. c. Must obey and serve their husbands. i. Nurture their children. ii. Hard daily work. d. Could not… i. Vote, hold office, attend schools or colleges, bring lawsuits, sign contracts, or become ministers. II. Women’s work. a. Traditional term referring to routine tasks in the house, garden, and fields performed by women. b. Eventually expanded in the colonies to include medicine, shopkeeping, upholstering, and the operation of inns and taverns. c. Widow’s carrying on dead husband’s trade or business. III. Elizabeth Lucas Pinckney (1722-1793) a. Fifteen years old at the time. b. Managed three plantations worked by slaves. c. Decided to grow indigo. i. Blue dye d. Made fortune. IV. First years of colonial settlement valued women more highly than in England. a. Protected from physical abuse. b. Divorce. c. Greater control over property. d. Still subordinate. SOCIETY AND ECONOMY IN THE COLONIES I. England and Scotland merged. a. The Act of Union in 1707 i. Joint monarchies: Great Britain. ii. British American Colonies. II. American merchants also traded (smuggled) with Spain, France, Portugal, Holland, and their colonies. a. Countries were often at war with Britain, therefore off limits. III. Natural resources a. Struggled for enough laborers. i. Indentured servitude. 1. Servants agreed to work for four to seven years in exchange for their master paying for their travel to America. 2. Half of white settlers in all colonies outside of New England. 3. Ethnic mix. THE SOUTHERN COLONIES I. Inequalities of wealth. a. Use of slaves on plantations resulted in enormous wealth for large landowners and families. b. The wealthy dominated colonial legislatures, bought luxury goods, built brick mansions. II. Staple crops a. Most profitable b. A profitable market crop, such as cotton, tobacco, or rice, that predominates in a given region. c. Rice planters became the wealthiest group in the British colonies. NEW ENGLAND I. Settlers often already gathered into a church congregation. a. Ask general court for a township. b. Divide acreage in roughly equal parcels: i. Those who invested more or had larger families or greater status might receive more land. RELIGION I. First public structure was usually a church. a. Puritans believed God created a covenant. i. Contract. ii. People formed a congregation for common worship. iii. Also applied to governing bodies. 2 b. Leaders sought to do the will of God. i. Not will of people. ii. Ultimate source of authority was Bible. c. Taxes to support church. d. Every resident was required to attend midweek and Sunday religious services. II. 1662, Boston ministers created the “Half-Way Covenant”. a. Baptized children of church members could be admitted to a “halfway” membership. b. Couldn’t vote or take communion. III. Massachusetts Royal Charter of 1691. a. Toleration of religious dissenters. b. Based the right to vote in public elections on property ownership rather than church membership. IV. Salem Village (1692) a. 300 New Englanders accused of witchcraft. b. 30 hanged. c. Several adolescent girls became fascinated with fortune telling and voodoo practiced by Tituba. i. West Indian slave. d. Entranced girls began to behave oddly. i. Accused Tituba, Sarah Goode, and Sarah Osborne of witchcraft. ii. Two were hanged. e. Governor intervened when his wife was accused. i. Disbanded Salem court. ii. Ordered suspects be released. f. Accused women i. Women who in some way defied the traditional roles of assigned females. g. Reflected hysteria from Indian attacks just north of Salem. ECONOMY I. No staple crops. a. Short growing season. b. Wheat, barley, oats. c. Pigs and sheep. II. Caught fish and engaged in trade. a. Operated taverns rather than worship. b. Heaviest concentration of cod in the world. c. Whales supplied oils for lighting and lubrication. d. Shipbuilding. III. 1660, London placed taxes on colonial exports. a. Fish, flour, wheat, and meat. IV. Triangular Trade a. A network of trade in which exports from one region were sold to a second region. b. The second sent its exports to a third region that exported its own goods back to the first country or colony. c. How it worked: Way 1 i. New Englanders shipped run to the west coast of Africa. ii. Exchanged for slaves. 3 iii. Ships took slaves to West Indies. iv. Returned home with Caribbean commodities. 1. Molasses. 2. Make rum. d. How it worked: Way 2 i. New Englanders shipped products to the West Indies. 1. Meat and fish. ii. Acquired sugar and molasses. iii. Transported to England. iv. Returned with manufactured goods and luxury items. MIDDLE COLONIES I. Great rivers a. Hudson, Delaware, and Susquehanna. b. Access to back country. c. Opened rich fur trade with Natives. d. Rivaled New England. II. Headright system. a. Fifty acres to any settler who paid passage. b. Fifty more if brought servants. c. Patroonship i. Patroons ii. Granted vast estates on Long Island and throughout the Hudson and Mohawk River valleys north of New York City. iii. Controlled self-contained estates farmed by tenants. 1. Renters. III. Germans a. Primarily Pennsylvania. b. From Rhineland region in Europe. c. Suffered brutal religious wars. d. 1683, Mennonites founded Germantown. IV. Scots-Irish a. Pennsylvania back country. b. “Squatting on” land claimed by Native Americans. c. 1741, Delaware Indians protested to Pennsylvania authorities. i. Scots-Irish were intruders. ii. No response. V. Huguenots a. French protesters whose religious freedom had been revoked in 1685. b. Forced to leave France. RACE-BASED SLAVERY IN THE COLONIES I. Southern colonies were utterly dependent on enslaved workers. a. Race-based slavery i. Institution that uses racial characteristics and myths to justify enslaving a people by force. ii. Few considered it a moral issue. b. Viewed as one’s “station in life” determined by God. i. Personal misfortune. 4 II. Slaves were initially treated like indentured servants. a. Limited term of service. i. Eventually gained freedom. ii. The free blacks often acquired black slaves and white servants. b. Life-long slavery eventually became custom and law. i. Did cost more, but was for life. c. Slave codes. i. Regulated black lives. ii. Legalize actions. RACIAL PREJUDICE I. Spanish established global trade. a. Negro is black in Spanish. b. Color was crucial difference. AFRICAN SLAVERY IN NORTH AMERICA I. Africa during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. a. Almost constant civil wars. b. Kidnapped and sold each other. i. Large numbers. c. 10 million Africans made the forced journey across Atlantic. II. Virginia and Maryland. a. Favored slaves from West Africa. b. Cultivated yams, similar to tobacco. III. Fulani. a. West and central Africa. b. Cattle herdsmen. IV. South Carolina. a. Rice coast. b. Gambia. c. Rice cultivation was common place. V. Lowlands of Africa. a. Boatmen. b. Coastal waterways. COLONIAL RACE RELATIONS I. Agricultural workers. a. Strenuous labor. b. 1750, majority of slaves were in Virginia and Maryland. II. More opportunities in Northern colonies. a. 1740, NYC was second to Charleston in percentage of slaves in colonial cities. b. Came from Caribbean sugar islands. c. 1712, several dozen revolted. i. Started fires. ii. Used swords, aces, and guns to kill whites. iii. Militia captured 27 slaves. iv. 6 committed suicide. v. Rest executed or burned alive. III. NY officials released ordinances. 5 a. Black code. b. Strictly regulating slaves. c. Based from slave codes in South Carolina. i. Ordinances passed by a colony or state to regular the behavior of slaves. ii. Including severe punishments for infractions. IV. Powerless are brutalized by the powerful. V. 1739, twenty slaves attacked a store in Stono, South Carolina. a. Killed the owner and seized weapons. b. Headed toward freedom in Florida. i. Spanish controlled. c. Stono Rebellion. i. A slave uprising in South Carolina that was brutally quashed, leading to executions as well as a severe tightening of the slave codes. d. Killed 25 whites. e. Militia captured and killed them. FIRST STIRRINGS OF A COMMON COLONIAL CULTURE I. Schools and colleges were being created. a. Colonists were able to read. II. American became addicted to buying luxury goods from Britain. a. Heightened social inequality. III. English merchants required Americans to buy goods with specie. a. Gold and silver coins. b. Led to bartering. i. Using commodities such as tobacco or rice as currency in exchange for manufactured goods and luxury items from England. COLONIAL CITIES I. Mostly populated by farmers and farm workers. II. The urban social elite was dominated by wealthy merchants and property owners. a. Served by a middle class of shop owners, innkeepers, and skilled craftsmen. i. Bottom of social order were sailors, manual laborers, servants, and slaves. III. Cities were busy, crowded, and dangerous. a. Open fireplaces led to frequent fires. i. Development of fire companies. b. Rising crime and violence. i. Increased policing by sheriffs and militia. c. Concerned about poor and homeless. i. Disabled, elderly, widows, and orphans. ii. Often provided money, food, clothing, and firewood by the county, town or city. THE URBAN WEB I. First roads were Indian trails. a. Widened from frequent travel. b. Travel by horse or foot. c. 1732, first stagecoach line. 6 d. Taverns and inns were important. i. Night was treacherous. ii. Forum for conversation and social interaction. II. Postal service a. Nonexistent in seventeenth century. b. Gave letters to travelers or sea captains and hoped they would get there. c. Parliamentary Law of 1710 i. Postmaster of London named a deputy in charge of colonies. d. Gave rise to newspapers. THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN AMERICA I. Enlightenment a. A revolution in thought begun in Europe in the seventeenth century that emphasized reason and science over the authority and myths of traditional religion. b. Rational inquiry, scientific research, and individual freedom. c. Truth. II. Age of Reason a. Another term for enlightenment. b. Triggered by scientific revolution. c. Nicolaus Copernicus i. Polish astronomer ii. Heliocentric (1533) 1. Sun-centered universe. 2. Rather than earth-centered. d. Isaac Newton i. Theory of earth’s gravitational pull. (1687) ii. Natural laws. iii. Politics, economics, and society. III. Deism a. Enlightenment thought applied to religion, emphasizing reason, morality, and natural law rather than scriptural authority or an ever-present God intervening in the daily life of humans. b. Evil in the world i. Not from humanity’s sinfulness. ii. From human ignorance of rational laws of nature. c. Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin. d. Cultivating reason. i. Highest virtue. IV. Political freedom. a. John Locke (1632-1704) i. Natural Law. 1. Consent of the governed and respecting natural rights of all. THE AGE OF REASON IN AMERICA I. Benjamin Franklin a. Born Boston 1706 b. Age 17, bound for Philadelphia. i. Bought print shop. ii. Edited Pennsylvania Gazette. 7 c. Age 26. i. Published Poor Richard’s Almanack ii. Seasonal weather forecasts, puzzles, household tips, and sayings. d. Age 42, retired. e. Devoted to scientific investigation. i. Inventive genius. ii. Stove, lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, glass harmonica. f. Deist. THE GREAT AWAKENING I. 1700-1750. a. Rebirth. II. Great awakening a. Emotional religious revival movement that swept the thirteen colonies from the 1720s through the 1740s. b. Spiritual passion. c. Affected all thirteen colonies. III. Jonathon Edwards a. One of America’s most brilliant philosophers and theologians. b. Yale in 1716 at age 13 c. Graduated top of class four years later. d. “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.” IV. William Tennent a. Presbyterian revivalist. b. Pennsylvania. c. Preached to those at the bottom of the social scale. i. Promoted passionate piety. V. George Whitefield a. Evangelist. INDIVIDUALISM AND COLONIAL CULTURE I. The enlightenment and the great awakening helped bind the colonies together. a. Both emphasized that individuals should have the freedom to take responsibility for their own lives and salvation. b. Weakened the authority of the established churches. c. Nurtured an American commitment to individual freedom and resistance to authority. CORE OBJECTIVES I. Colonial demographics a. Cheap land lured most poor immigrants to America. i. The initial shortage of women eventually gave way to a more equal gender ratio. ii. Tendency to earlier marriage than in Europe. iii. Higher birth rates and larger families. b. People also lived longer on average in the colonies than in Europe. c. The lower death rates led to rapid population growth in the colonies. II. Women in the colonies 8 a. English colonists brought their traditional beliefs and prejudices with them to America. i. Including convictions about the inferiority of women. b. Colonial women remained largely confined to women’s work. i. House, yard, and field. c. Necessity created new opportunities for women outside their traditional roles. III. Colonial differences a. Thriving colonial trading economy sent raw materials to England. i. Fish, timber, furs. ii. Exchanged for manufactured goods. b. Expanding economy created new wealth. i. Rise in the consumption of European goods. ii. Fostered the expansion of slavery. c. Agriculture diversified. i. Tobacco was a staple crop in Virginia. ii. Rice was a staple crop in the Carolinas. d. Plantation agriculture based on slavery became entrenched in the south. e. New England’s prosperous shipping industry created a profitable triangular trade. i. Africa, America, and England. f. 1790, German, Scot-Irish, Welsh, and Irish Immigrants (etc.) settled in middle colonies. i. Quakers, Jews, Huguenots, and Mennonites. IV. Race-based slavery a. Deep-rooted color prejudice. i. Led to race-based slavery. b. Africans were considered heathens. i. Supposed inferiority entitled white Americans to use them for slaves. ii. Brought skills from Africa to build America’s economy. iii. Concentrated in south. 1. Landowners used them to produce staple crops. iv. In cities too. 1. NYC. c. As population of slaves increased, race relations grew tense. i. Slave codes were created to regulate the movement and activities of enslaved people. d. Slave uprisings. i. Stono Rebellion. V. The enlightenment and the great awakening. a. Printing presses, higher, education, and city life created a flow of new ideas that circulated. i. Long distance travel, tavern life, the postal service, books, newspapers. b. Enlightenment i. Transported along international trade routes. ii. Sir Isaac Newton 1. Scientific discoveries culminated in the belief that reason could improve society. iii. Benjamin Franklin 1. Believed people could shape their own destinies. 2. Face of enlightenment. iv. Deism 9 1. Religious views of the age of reason. c. The Great Awakening i. New congregations formed. ii. Evangelists insisted that Christians be reborn. iii. Individualism 1. Stressed in this first popular religious movement in America’s history. KEY TERMS Birth rate Death rate Women’s work Staple crops Triangular trade Race-based slavery Slave codes Stono rebellion (1739) Enlightenment Deism Great awakening CHRONOLOGY 1660s Colonial assemblies legalize lifelong slavery. 1683 German Mennonites arrive in Pennsylvania. 1687 Sir Isaac Newton publishes his theory of universal gravitation. 1691 South Carolina passes first slave codes; Other states follow. 1692 Salem witch trials. 1712 Slave revolt in New York City; New York passes stricter laws governing slaves. 1730 Chesapeake region’s slave population achieves self-sustaining rate of population growth. 1730s-1740s The Great Awakening. 1739 Stono Rebellion. 1750 Colonial population passes 1 million. 1775 Colonial population passes 2.5 million. 10
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